In Russia, created a parallel army
President Putin is on the evening of April 5th at the base of the Interior Troops of the Interior Ministry Federal Service of the National Guard. This decision has been discussed for several years. What are the features of the new power structure and what were the circumstances of its formation - understood Lenta.ru.
From the words of the President of Russia, it can be concluded that internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs are transferred to the new structure, whose functions are in many respects similar to those performed by the National Guard. The tasks of the internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia are defined in the Federal Law “On Internal Troops”:
- participation together with the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation in the protection of public order, ensuring public safety and the state of emergency;
- protection of important public facilities and special cargo;
- participation in the territorial defense of the Russian Federation;
- assisting the Border Guard Service of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in the protectionThe state border of the Russian Federation;
- The fight against terrorism and the provision of a counter-terrorist operation regime.
The MVD were used, among other things, in conflicts on the territory of Russia, took part in both Chechen wars, and now play an important role in maintaining law and order in the North Caucasus. Troops are fully motorized; have armored vehicles, albeit in much smaller quantities than the army; They have their own aviation, engineering, sea units and other formations. The number of explosives today is about 200 thousand people.
In addition to the internal troops, territorial units of SOBR and OMON, the Special Purpose Center of the Rapid Response Force and Aviation, all supervisory bodies involved in regulating the circulation of weapons and security services (including private and private security) were transferred to the new federal service.
The personnel of the transferred units, in addition to the Internal Troops, according to a number of assessments, exceed 230 thousand people, of which about 200 thousand belong to the units of private security and the FSUE “Protection”. This brings the maximum potential number of personnel of the new federal service to 430 thousand people.How many of them will be reduced (and about the future reductions in the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs dealing with security were reported from 2015), it will become clear only after some time.
National Guard under different varieties
Power structures with such a name were created in different historical periods in many countries, but the general definition hides a different content. The US National Guard is the best known, being, on the one hand, a reserve of the armed forces, on the other - the militia at the disposal of the state governor (essentially local militia) involved in eliminating the consequences of natural disasters, maintaining law and order during mass unrest, etc. , that is, performing the same functions that are assigned to internal troops in Russia.
At times, the National Guard serves as an additional forceful support for state power - usually after revolutionary changes (as the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in Iran).
This tradition is long-standing, leaving a mark in history books. National Guard of the Great FrenchRevolutions and the Red Guard of 1917 are the institutions of self-defense of the new government from the not always loyal institutions of the old government and separate potentially hostile strata of the population.
In the third world countries, these formations often arise in conditions of relative weakness of the authoritarian central government, as is the case with the national guards of a number of post-Soviet states, republican guards in Syria and Iraq. This tradition goes back to the personal guards of the monarchs of the ancient period and the Middle Ages, often hired from foreigners or from a cohesive and loyal national minority. Such structures were difficult to incorporate into the main establishment of the country, and due to this they served at least as relative insurance against conspiracies and coups.
The first attempt to form the National Guard in post-Soviet Russia was made after the August 1991 coup, when the President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin instructed the Vice-President of the RSFSR Alexander Rutsky to "begin the formation of the WG (Russian Guard) to strengthen the protection of the constitutional order and democratic gains, create additional guarantees of legality and law and order in the country. "
The new guard was supposed to be a classic example of a military formation ensuring the security of the revolutionary government against the resistance of the “old regime”: it was planned to entrust the WG with ensuring the security and normal functioning of the bodies of state power and administration of the RSFSR, republics, territories and regions within the Federation; maintaining law and order in emergency situations, including in the zone of armed conflict, supporting law enforcement agencies and a number of other tasks. The WG was to be created on the basis of the internal troops of the RSFSR Ministry of the Interior.
The project, however, was buried by the military: Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, close to Yeltsin, strongly opposed the creation of a parallel military structure outside the armed forces. What can be said about a return to this idea today is difficult to say, but the most logical answers boil down to preventing surprises. Including those that the armed forces cannot handle.
Read the documents
One guiding document in which the existence of the National Guard looks quite organically is well known. This is a new military doctrine of Russia, approved at the end of 2014.
The document for the first time introduced into circulation a number of new threats to the state related to internal factors and external interference, designed to destabilize the situation.
Obviously, with a serious restructuring of the field of threats, concrete steps are needed to create a system that stops these threats, at least nominally. The field of threats to the doctrine of 2014 clearly outlined the front of the internal “war without war”, for which the state simply did not have any tools other than a well-functioning, but still limited in terms of applicability, counter-terrorism operations (CTO) regime.
In the form in which President Putin announced the creation of a separate “internal army”, this task can be traced quite consistently. The terrorist threat is designated directly and can be interpreted very broadly, for example, in the spirit of the nowadays concept of “hybrid war”, in which the main role is played by mobile paramilitary forces that systematically destabilize a large state from the inside.
The threat of destabilization and civil unrest in this case is perceived as the result of the influence of malicious forces and as a side effect of the partial loss of control in conditions of natural disasters and man-made disasters.According to the President’s remarks, the National Guard also plans to rectify their consequences.
In this, our National Guard under fully closes in with its American “namesake”, which works in disaster zones and in areas of major civil unrest.
It remains an open question about the new functions of the newly created power structure - in particular, about its possible acquisition of the status of a subject of operational search activity, which can be quite plausibly motivated by counter-terrorism tasks and the fight against extremism. In this case, in Russia, in fact, there will be not only a new power structure, but also a new full-fledged special service.
Shorten the device?
A separate graph are the favorite Russian dignitaries hardware games. The decision made by the president creates a new situation in the “administrative market” of the Russian departments.
To date, a potentially unstable structure has emerged in the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, connected with the extremely powerful first deputy of Vladimir KolokoltsevViktor Zolotov, the long-time head of the security service of President Putin, was in command of the internal troops, from which they will now make independent national guard.
As a result of the separation of the MVD of the Interior Ministry and their transformation into an independent federal power structure, Zolotov, on the one hand, receives a hardware reinforcement of positions, on the other - this reinforcement ceases to directly threaten Kolokoltsov.
Kolokoltsov's loss of a part of the hardware potential associated with the withdrawal of such a powerful structure as explosives was immediately compensated: an extensive territorial apparatus of the Federal Drug Control Service was transferred to the system of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and returned to the FMS.
The latter directly merges with antiterrorist tasks, as the President has directly said. The Ministry of Internal Affairs, as a structure responsible for fighting crime (including organized, including ethnic), can behave in terms of regulating migration flows much tougher and more efficiently than the “freestanding” FMS.
The fate of another hardware heavyweight, the head of the Federal Drug Control Service, Viktor Ivanov, remains in question. With a stroke of the presidential pen, he was transferred to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. If Ivanov remains in this system, his rank will easily allow him to take the place of the departed Zolotov.