Catarrhal otitis: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Catarrhal otitis is apathological process of inflammatory or infectious nature that occurs in the middle ear. This disease is characterized by a lesion of the tympanic cavity, auditory canal and cellular structure of the mastoid process. Catarrhal otitis, the most frequent pathogens are pneumo-, strepto- and staphylococci, occurs in representatives of all age groups, but most often affects children's body. This is due to the fact that in children the auditory tube is shorter and broader than in adults. This facilitates the penetration of pathogens into the middle ear cavity.
Among the total number of patients with pathologiesENT organs, according to official statistics, the average otitis catarrhal is diagnosed approximately in every fourth case. Therefore, timely diagnosis in conjunction with the right treatment tactics are extremely important for preventing various complications and possible adverse effects of this pathology. It is also important to know the causes and symptoms of this disease, which will help to identify catarrhal otitis at the earliest stage of its onset.
Among the contributing diseasesfactors are the decrease in body resistance, vitamin deficiency, the presence of various infectious agents, diabetes mellitus. As a rule, acute catarrhal otitis is observed against a background of various chronic pathologies of the nasal cavity, which are accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane. Also, favorable conditions for the development of this ailment are influenza, acute respiratory viral infection and acute rhinitis. It is important to note that the spread of pathogens that provoke catarrhal otitis is also possible through the circulatory system with tuberculosis, measles and scarlet fever.
The symptomatology of this pathology is manifested by strongheadache, a feeling of stuffiness in the ears, a fever, a decrease in hearing, a deterioration in overall well-being. In addition, at the acute stage of the disease there are irradiating pains of shooting and pulsating nature, which can be given to the teeth, the temporal parietal region. Also, painful sensations are greatly amplified during sneezing, blowing, coughing and swallowing.
Hearing tube dysfunction may be accompanied byexudative middle otitis media, which is characterized by the presence of a mucous-serous effusion in the tympanic cavity. The leading pathogenic factor of such otitis is a persistent violation of the ventilation-drainage function of the auditory canal. This form of otitis media is characterized by increased mucus secretion and a prolonged course of the disease.
The main diagnostic method here isotoscopy, often with an increase. To clarify the nature of the course of the disease, an examination of the functionality of the auditory canal is also carried out with the help of some commonly available samples. In addition, an impedance test is often used to identify a flattened curve. The condition of the patient's hearing is checked by tuning forks and audiometric methods.
Treatment of otitis media in the absenceadditional complications and adverse factors are carried out mainly at home. The patient is prescribed a bed rest, local anesthetic drugs (usually ear drops with an analgesic content). In addition, various warming agents are needed: semi-alcohol compresses, hot-water bottle, ultraviolet lamp, UHF physiotherapy procedures and others. Here it should be noted that warming procedures can be carried out only in the presence of normal temperature, otherwise it is first necessary to take antipyretic.
Also very effective in otitis can besosudosuzhivayuschie drops in the nose, which will reduce swelling and restore the patency of the auditory canal. To treat the acute form of catarrhal otitis often prescribed antibiotics and restorative drugs. With adequate therapy, the whole course takes no more than a week. It is important to remember that self-medication of otitis media is highly discouraged, since it can go into a more severe form (internal or purulent) and give intracranial complications.