Culture of India
A diverse, distinctive and unique cultureIndia. Folding for several thousand years, it absorbed a variety of philosophical worldviews, religious views, traditions and customs of different peoples living on its territory.
It should be noted that the culture of India is not homogeneous. It depends entirely on the various regions of the country, gravitating since ancient times to their own way of life, beliefs and customs. However, there are common features that allow to consider the culture of India as a whole.
The religious system is the progenitormultifaceted Indian epic, in which the versatile deeds of the gods and members of their families are described in great detail. These legends were the basis of the spiritual life of the Indian people. On their basis, philosophical doctrines, martial arts and medical traditions arise.
The first buildings that appeared on the territoryIndian state, there were sanctuaries, or temples. Architects for a long time did not know themselves equal in quality and craftsmanship, thanks to this great influence on the architecture of neighboring countries was rendered by India.
The culture of this country is distinguished by some achievements in various fields. The art of India is associated with the main religions, which have received wide circulation here. This is Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism.
The artistic culture of India is representedancient monuments. The most famous of them are wall paintings in the cave of Ajanta. The walls and ceilings of this Buddhist complex, consisting of 29 caves, cover scenic stories describing Buddha's life, everyday scenes and mythological subjects. Thanks to the fact that the Indians knew the secrets of the durability of paints, the drawings in the temple were perfectly preserved.
The culture of India is inextricably linked with the bookminiature. In court workshops Indian and Persian masters, who are engaged in illustrating manuscripts, created their own creations - miniature paintings. They depicted real people, natural phenomena and various objects. Artists do not strive for decorative in the visual arts, in the center of their attention are three-dimensional forms and the natural color of the object.
In ancient times, most of the structures were built of wood. It is for this reason that they are not preserved.
Since the 1st c. BC. there are cave temples, or tea houses. You can see them mainly in the mountainous regions of the country. They are cave temples with columns, a capital and a huge horseshoe-shaped window - the main source of light. One of the oldest monuments of architecture, made of stone, is the fence of the stupa in Sanchi.
Brick houses were erected in areas where the probability of flooding was completely absent, as the brick used at that time quickly soaked in water.
Most of the samples of this art are wornreligious character. The culture of India, and the art of sculpture in particular, reached enormous heights, there were even certain guidelines and rules for making sculptures. In the 1-5 centuries. there are changes in the Buddha image. It is depicted in the guise of a person, and not in the form of certain symbols.
Music and theater
In honor of the gods in India were held periodicallyvarious festivals, in which the main attention was paid to dances and songs. Religious processions occupied an insignificant part of the time. The main element of such festivities were theatrical performances. The ceremony was attended by professional actors, wrestlers, magicians, rope walkers and musicians.
In the north of the country there is a theater (lila). His artists appear before the audience in colorful costumes and masks. There are no scenery at all, and the change of costumes and make-up occurs in front of the audience.