Cytomegalovirus in adults and children - causes, diagnosis and treatment
Cytomegalovirus - a dangerous neighborhood
To date, the cunning of cytomegalovirus lies in its widespread prevalence, as well as asymptomatic disease progression. In order to more clearly demonstrate what is at stake, it is necessary to single out the belonging of this virus to the group of herpes viruses that cause colds on the lips and / or herpes on the genitals in both men and women. This group includes the varicella zoster virus.
Symptoms of cytomegalovirus
People with strong immunity do not feel the presence of the virus in their bodies, and the disease is, in most cases, asymptomatic, without causing any harm to the host.However, the risk of disease from this does not become less.
Symptoms in men
In the male body, cytomegalovirus infection is inactive. A stressful situation, nervous exhaustion or a cold disease can be a trigger for awakening.
In the male population, the symptoms of the disease can manifest as follows:
- increased body temperature;
- swelling of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity;
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- runny nose;
- inflammatory diseases of the joints;
- skin rash.
The only way to distinguish the symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection from the banal ARI is the duration of their manifestation. If in acute respiratory disease they last from 7 to 14 days, in the first case - 4-6 weeks.
From the first day of infection, the patient has already been an active carrier of infection for at least 3 years.There have been cases in which cytomegalovirus infection has affected the urogenital system and testicular tissue in men, provoking inflammatory processes. Active defeats by the virus of these organs are accompanied by unpleasant sensations during urination.
Speaking about the natural level of susceptibility in relation to the disease in question, the risk of contracting the virus in men depends on the support of the organism itself. In particular, the symptoms will appear much brighter in the acute form, as well as the complications themselves, in individuals with a current immunodeficiency physiological state and in the case of an acquired type of immunodeficiency.
Symptoms in women
In women, the symptoms will be the same as in men. In particular, in the female body, cytomegalovirus will present itself with the symptoms of ordinary flu: general weakness and a slight increase in body temperature. Most cases are marked by a complete absence of symptoms, and the cytomegalovirus infection itself is detected in the laboratory research process.
If a pregnant woman is only a virus carrier, then treatment is not provided. The doctor in this case should recommend to postpone the next pregnancy for at least two years. Despite the fact that the symptoms of the disease do not appear, and the virus is in a dormant state, everything can change dramatically at the time of the development of the fetus.
Pregnancy Women and Cytomegalovirus
In the case of pregnancy, cytomegalovirus infection provokes serious violations in terms of fetal development. There is a particular danger of lurking in the case when the necessary antibodies are not present in the mother's body, that is, the infection is primary. Since the risk of a virus entering the fetus through the placenta is extremely high, in the end it is necessary to talk not so much about vital violations in the development of the fetus, but about its death.
As already mentioned, the most serious consequences accompany primary infection.Therefore, the attitude to their health of women who have not previously been ill with this disease should be particularly responsible.
It is very important to know in which cases infection of the fetus with this virus is possible:
- in the case of the presence of the pathogen in the male seed at conception of the child;
- during fetal development through the placenta or fetal membranes;
- during childbirth, when the baby passes through the birth canal;
- during breastfeeding.
It should be noted that the cytomegalovirus that infects children in the first months of their life is not as dangerous for them as it is for the fetus during its prenatal development.
In some cases, cytomegalovirus can provoke a small weight in the fetus, which will be observed at birth. However, after some time, both mental development and other indicators, including weight, return to normal. In other cases, there was some lag in the development of the children in relation to their peers. However, children who have suffered a defeat by a virus become passive carriers of it.
Speaking about the death of the fetus, which struck a cytomegalovirus infection, it should be noted that this is relevant for the first 12 weeks. If the fetus survives in the course of infection, it is born with a congenital infection of this type. At first, the symptoms of the disease may not appear, or become more noticeable in the period from 2 to 5 year of life.
If the cytomegalovirus appears immediately, then among the malformations will occur:
- underdevelopment of the brain;
- dropsy of the brain;
- enlarged liver;
- congenital deformities;
- heart disease;
- possible deafness or its gradual development;
- muscle weakness;
- Cerebral palsy;
- mental retardation.
If cytomegalovirus infection struck the fetus during the developmental period, but its symptoms manifested themselves in the child’s later age, the following consequences are possible:
- hearing loss;
- speech retardation;
- psychomotor disorders;
- mental retardation.
Heavier effects that cytomegalovirus provokes in pregnant women can lead to abortion.
Primary contamination can be prevented by maximizing contact with people, especially children, who can release it into the environment before the age of five.
Symptoms in children
The cause that provokes cytomegalovirus in children is usually intrauterine infection through the placenta. Only 17% of children experience all sorts of symptoms that correspond to this disease. In particular, cytomegalovirus infection gives its presence in the form of:
- enlarged liver and spleen;
- decreased hemoglobin levels;
- biochemical changes in the composition of the blood;
- disorders of the central nervous system (in severe cases);
- impaired hearing and vision.
It should be noted that in adults the symptoms are completely different.
Quite often in children, cytomegalovirus affects the skin areas.In the first hours of life, an infected child is covered with a profuse rash, as in the photo, which covers the skin in the legs, arms, torso and face. Cases when the virus caused subcutaneous hemorrhages, bleeding of the navel are not rare. The presence of blood in the baby’s fecal masses or on the mucous membranes was often detected.
If a cytomegalovirus infection affects the brain in children, which is rarely observed in adults, then there is a trembling of the handles, convulsions, and increased drowsiness. In the case of a congenital form of the disease in case of impairment or loss in varying degrees of vision and hearing, other symptoms may occur, including developmental delays.
Cytomegalovirus affects children of both preschool and school age. It is proved that infection occurs through saliva. In this case, the symptoms of infected children will be the same as in adults.
In the case of latent flow in children of the disease, disorders in the immune system will be completely absent. Medical practice shows that this form of manifestation of the disease is widespread, but does not have even the slightest destructive influence on children.
Methods and methods of treatment
Unfortunately, modern medicine does not have any specific methods or methods by which treatment can completely cleanse the body of the presence of this virus. In the case of the proper state of the human immune system, treatment as such will not be required at all, since the infection will be destroyed by natural means.
Otherwise, the treatment will consist of taking antiviral drugs that are not necessarily prescribed.
Treatment may include the use of antiviral drugs, even in the form of suppositories. The duration of medication, as well as their dosage, will depend on the condition of the patient, as well as many other purely individual factors.
Before the necessary treatment is suggested, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis, determine the symptoms, and only after that the appropriate therapy will be described by the dermatovenereologist or venereologist.