Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics.

Good day, dear needlewomen!

What fabric to sew a product from? How often do you ask yourself such a question? Choose knitwear, cotton, linen, silk? In order to choose a fabric, you need to know its properties, characteristics, naturalness, durability, heat resistance ...

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Today we will analyze a variety of fabrics and materials, find out what classes of fabrics are.

According to the type of raw material fabrics are - natural and artificial.
NATURAL FABRICS (or classic fabrics)are of plant origin (for example, cotton, flax, hemp); animal origin (eg wool, natural silk); mineral origin. Natural fabrics are distinguished by the fact that they absorb moisture well and allow air to pass through.

  • Natural cotton fabrics - soft, warm, well absorb sweat, used for dresses, shirts, shirts. Natural cotton fabrics are elastic, they are distinguished by evenness, uniform thickness.The lack of cotton fabrics, they crumple and sit down when washing.
  • Natural linen fabrics are shiny, smooth, do not irritate sensitive skin, have better hygienic properties as compared to cotton, the fabric will not lose its color from sunlight. Flax deficiency - inextensibility, inelasticity, very well wrinkled, clothes made from linen fabrics are deformed
  • Natural wool fabrics are soft, thin, of uniform thickness, elastic, lightweight, breathable. Strongly not wrinkled. Wool fabrics obtained from yarn produced by the spun spinning system are of the highest quality and do not wrinkle.
  • Natural silk fabrics are obtained from the finest yarns derived from cocoons curled by silkworm caterpillars. Silk thread is uniform in thickness, elastic, durable. Fabrics made from such fibers are light, shiny, breathable, quickly absorb moisture and dry quickly, are hygroscopic. The disadvantage - quickly fade from light, sunlight, ultraviolet rays act on silk destructively, it was strongly crushed

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ARTIFICIAL FABRICSare: from natural substances of organic (cellulose, proteins) and inorganic origin (rayon,acetate, lurex); from synthetic polymers, including: polyamide fabrics, polyesters, polypropylene fabrics, polyvinyl fabrics.
Artificial silk fabrics - viscose, acetate silk and others are made from cellulose obtained from spruce wood chips. Viscose fiber has good smoothness and hygroscopicity, light resistance, gloss, in fabrics - slip.
Synthetic silk fabrics are produced from synthetic fibers obtained from high-molecular compounds formed by the synthesis of simple low-molecular substances. Polyester and polyamide silks can be processed in such a way that they are waterproof, they are not afraid of oil stains, etc. Synthetic fabrics are made from such fibers.
Synthetic fabrics - polyamides (dederon, chemlon, silon), polyesters (diolen, sloter, tesil), polyvinyls (kashmilon, dralon), and others. softness, ease of care and other positive qualities.

MIXED FABRICS. In order to increase the period of wear of fabrics and increase wear resistance, which allows to expand the range of use of synthetic fabrics, given their positive qualities (wrinkleiness, durability, breathability), produce mixed fabrics. Their composition may be different: 70% wool and 30% synthetic fiber; 40% wool and 60% synthetic fiber; 45% wool and 55% polyester silk; 20% wool and 80% polyacrylonitrile fiber, etc. Blended fabrics are elastic, durable, they do not need to be ironed, they do not cause allergies in people with sensitive skin, are resistant to wear, they have many advantages compared to conventional classic fabrics. Therefore, in recent years, the demand for mixed fabrics has increased markedly.6fpgt7ujz8e

KNITWEAR- a large place in our wardrobe is occupied by knitwear and knitwear. The difference of knitwear is that its fabric is not woven, but knitted. Characteristics of knitwear depends on the quality of yarn, weaving, knitting density. Knitwear is good because it is elastic, resistant to washing and almost never wrinkled. Before choosing a knitwear or fabric, you need to pay attention to whether the knitwear keeps its original shape. More often it happens that a knitted fabric is knitted from mixed threads.
Knitwear can be wool, cotton, synthetic and so on.
• cotton jersey - soft and durable
• Wool knitwear is more elastic, unlike cotton or viscose, and keeps its shape well;
• synthetic knitwear - perfectly washable in the car, does not wrinkle, does not absorb water, therefore it dries quickly (nylon, polyester, acrylic).

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ACRYL -paper synthetic fiber with proven high qualities. Form resistant, mothproof.

ANGORA- wool of the Angora goat and the Angora rabbit. Very thin, fluffy and silky. It is used in knitwear both alone and mixed with other types of wool to increase strength.
ACETATE- viscose with acetate base. The fabric is light and smooth. Easy to wash, form-stable.
BOSTON- pure woolen dyed twill weave, with high wear resistance.
BOOKLET- filaments on which, due to the use of twisted yarn with irregular loop-like bulges, a bumpy surface is created.
BAZ- cotton plain weave.
Velvet Cord- cotton fabric belonging to the group of pile fabrics with a split pile, has wide (3-5 mm) pile stripes, is available dyed or printed pattern.
VELVET-RUBCHIK- cotton fabric, belonging to the group of nap fabrics with a split pile, has nap strips, usually 1 mm wide, produced in plain-colored or printed pattern.
VELOURS- The common name for soft nap materials having a velvety front surface, which include fabrics (cotton, artificial silk, wool), and felt, leather.
VISCOSE- created from cellulose using the viscose method. Excellent quality in wear. From viscose fibers create a fabric resembling silk, cotton, and even wool and linen. Products from viscose absorb moisture well.
VEIL- thin cotton plain weave fabric. Weight 1 sq. M. - 60-105 g.
GABARDINE- the term used for pure wool and wool blend fabrics, on the surface of which there are clearly expressed small diagonal scars located at a large angle (60-70 °). High density and uniformity of the surface ensure their high water resistance and wear resistance.When using special impregnations, they acquire high water resistance and are used to manufacture high-quality raincoats. In finished products are well draped with the formation of free folds. Belong to the best fabrics for light coats, suits.
DENIM- strong, dense cotton twill or plain weave for denim.
DEVOR- fabric with a pattern obtained by burning (chemical etching) of a part of the fibers. Fame acquired in the XIX century.
JERSEY- knitted fabric (single or double) machine knitting with a very small looped step, which has a high elongation, a smooth surface and is made of combed wool, at least - from cotton, silk or artificial fibers.
DRAP- pure wool, subjected to a strong roll, which completely covers the weave pattern. The front side is produced from higher quality yarn than purl. Depending on the quality of the raw materials, the structure and the finishing, the drapes can be single-faced or double-faced (finishing only on the front or front and back sides), monochromatic and multi-colored, brushed and non-brushed.
CASHMERE- pure woolen light soft fabric, matte-shiny, produced by a diagonal weave. By the nature of colors can be dyed, multicolored, melange, printed.
CORD- Wool fabric, dense to the touch, durable. The surface of the fabric is slightly fleecy, weaving in the form of scars. Produced from thin carded twisted yarn.
CREPE- term used:
a) for cotton fabrics, combined crepe weave;
b) for pure wool and wool blend costume fabrics produced by crepe weave, due to which the fabrics have a rough surface;
c) for silk fabrics produced with the use of threads having a high (crepe) twist - more than 1,500 twists / m and differing due to this rough surface.
KREPDESHIN- term used:
a) for a fabric of silk yarn produced from raw silk at the base and crepe silk in a weft;
b) for fabric from artificial yarns, produced from a weakly twisted base and a high crepe weft twist (surface density - 130 g / m2). For crepe de chine, matte finish is characteristic.
KREP-SATIN- silk fabric belonging to the group of fabrics from artificial yarns and which is a satin weave fabric with a shiny smooth face and a matte crepe effect on the wrong side (surface density - 250 g / m2). Both sides can be used as facial.
KREP-CHIFFON- fabric belonging to the crepe subgroup of the group of fabrics from natural silk yarns, produced by plain weave of twisted silk-crepe at the base and weft (surface density - 25 g / m2). Crepe-chiffon has a matte finish.
KUPRO- viscose with copper-ammonium fibers. It is made by chemical means from natural raw materials - wood and cotton. The fabric has a silky sheen, beautifully draped, absorbs moisture well and lets air through.
LYCRA- highly stretchable (up to 400%) fiber, the use of which in a mixture with others provides high tensile properties and elasticity of the web. It is widely used in the development of canvases used for products, tight-fitting figure - swimsuits, sports. clothes, dresses, trousers, etc.
VARNISH- type of silk fabric finishing, as a result of which the surface of the fabric becomes shiny and smooth, like satin.
LINEN- Flax products are very durable, do not wear out for a long time, they absorb moisture well and at the same time dry quickly. But when worn very quickly crumple. Polyester is added to linen to reduce bruising. Or mixed flax, cotton, viscose and wool.
MELANGE- a mixture of fibers of different colors or different tones of the same color in the same yarn or canvas derived from it. This achieves a coloristic special “melange effect”. Melange yarn - yarn from fibers of different colors. Melange fabric, knitwear - materials from melange yarn.
MOHAIR- wool of the Angora goat, goat wool. The term mohair is used for all types of yarn from this wool or with the use of this wool in mixture with others, as well as for products and materials from such yarn.
MODAL- special viscose fiber with high water-repellent effect.
NYLON - see POLYAMIDE.
ORGANDY- a thin, transparent, rather stiff cotton fabric, imported to Europe from East India. Currently, the term Organdy is used for blousons and jackets that are worn over the top and bustier.
ORGANZA- rigid, transparent fabric, similar to organdy, produced from natural silk or chemical fibers.
POLYAMIDE- synthetic fiber with exceptional resistance to stretching and high wear resistance.
POLYESTER- synthetic material. Well passes air, differs in the increased softness and simplicity in leaving.
POPLIN- cotton, silk or wool fabric, dense, shiny, smooth, soft. It is produced by plain weave. Poplin can be bleached, dyed, printed and multicolored.
RAMI- high quality, similar to linen, natural thread, obtained from Chinese nettle, uniform, smooth with a wonderful matte effect.
TWILL- silk or wool fabric. Silk twill with a characteristic pleasant sheen, produced by twill weave. Woolen twill is a light fabric with a touch of prickly, with a moderately shiny surface.
TAFFETA- silk one-colored or multicolored, dense fabric to the touch, with a characteristic pronounced structure - a scar on the surface, moderately shiny.
TWEED- Wool fabric usually twill weave, reminiscent of homespun. Used for costumes, coat.
TACTEL- synthetic material in combination with natural threads, gives a feeling of comfort.The thread consists of a multitude of ultrafine fibers, the more of them in the yarn, the easier it is to touch. The material is as hygienic as cotton, as light as silk, as plastic as polyester.
COTTON- natural fiber, made from cotton plant. Cotton fabrics include chintz, calico, satin, poplin, taffeta, thick bike, thin cambric and chiffon, denim. Cotton products are very durable, tolerate washing and ironing at high temperatures, and absorb moisture very well. On the other hand, when washing these things, they noticeably “sit down”, they dry for a long time and are wrinkled very hard. Therefore, lavsan or polyester is often added to the cotton thread.
SILK- the threads of the glands of silkworm caterpillars. Silk fabrics are lightweight and durable. The strength of a silk thread is equal to the strength of a steel wire of the same diameter, but silk is many times more elastic, which allows fabric to be made by twisting the threads in different ways. That is why, silk thread gives such a variety of fabrics: crepes, satin, gas, fay, itching, velvet - all these are silk thread derivatives. They absorb moisture well (equal to half their own weight) and dry very quickly. Clothing made of silk in the cold warms, and in the heat creates a feeling of coolness.
WOOL- Wool fabrics retain heat very well, relatively little get dirty and crumple a little. Modern woolen fabrics are divided into two categories: wool and wool. The first contains 90% wool, and the second 20-90% wool and polyester, nylon or viscose. (If the content of synthetic fibers exceeds 50%, then glitter and pellets appear on the fabric). Adding lavsan reduces tissue crushing. And viscose increases its durability.

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  • Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics

    Fabrics: a variety and classification of fabrics