Finished products accounting
If a business entity produces goods forfurther realization, then it is necessary to organize the accounting of finished products for the enterprise. Control should be affected and those products that enter the warehouse organization, as well as those that are released from it to customers.
Ready-made products include semi-finished products andgoods that have been completely processed according to current technological conditions and existing standards. All products must be accepted by the warehouse service or buyers.
In order to reliably keep records of finished products, you need to have a number of information.
- data on the volumes of manufactured products in warehouses;
- the number of goods shipped to consumers;
- the sale price of finished products;
- the state of settlements between the enterprise and customers.
Accounting for finished products in quantitativeexpression, which is maintained in the places of its storage, as well as in different types, can be implemented using one of two main methods: with and without the use of cards. The first method involves the compilation of grouping statements. They find reflections of the product in places of their storage and species. The second method of accounting consists of the daily writing of the turnover sheets. With their help, records are kept of the output of finished products, its movement and fixation of storage sites. Both the first and the second method involve taking goods into the subreport with the preparation of invoices for delivery and acceptance, as well as acts, established forms of specifications, etc.
Accounting for finished products and their sale is carried out in the presence of primary documents, which serve:
- receipts for transportation by rail;
- delivery invoices;
- Acts for the reception and delivery of work or services.
If the delivery of the goods to the buyer from the supplieris made on the terms of the contract concluded between them, then one of the stipulated obligations is the ex-place. Up to this point, all shipping costs for the shipment of finished products are borne by the seller. Proceeding from this, the account of finished goods is made at the formed invoice prices:
- ex-warehouse of the supplier, when the cost of work on loading and unloading, as well as transportation of cargo is charged to the buyer;
- Franco-departure stations, in which the buyer's work is carried out to load goods into wagons, as well as to transport cargo;
- Franco-wagon-station, when all loading works and railway tariff to the delivery station are paid by the seller, and after - by the buyer;
- ex-warehouse of the buyer, under which all the shipping costs for delivery to the final destination are assumed by the seller.
In order to take into account the presence and movementshipped goods, in accounting practice an active synthetic account is used, which is called "Goods shipped". It fixes products that were transferred to postal or transport organizations, and shipped with their own funds. This account is also reflected in goods that are transferred for sale to third parties under commission agreements, the cost of packaging materials and the amount of penalties or recognized claims for the refusal of buyers to pay for the products received. In accordance with the existing shipping documents, accounting entries are made.
All available amounts for shipped goodsfall on the credit of the fortieth account - "Output of products" or forty-first - "Goods". After the buyer paid for the purchase, the synthetic account is closed. The sums on the shipped products pass to the debit part of the account ninety - "Sales".
If an entity reflects revenue as it is dischargedpayment document and presenting it to the buyer, then another scheme is used in accounting entries. In the debit part of the account of the sixty-second, which reflects the settlements with customers and buyers, the amounts collected on the credit of the ninety account fall.