First Aid: Principles and Methods
Among pathological conditions, a special placeCritical when first aid is required. Carrying out such activities to save lives, as well as preventing the development of possible complications and alleviating the course of trauma are the main objectives of such activities.
General principles of first aid
- First, it is worth immediately stopping the action of thosefactors that have some kind of damage, such as heavy loads, toxic gases, and so on. Also, if necessary, remove the victim from adverse conditions. It should be done very carefully, try not to cause unnecessary pain and not to exacerbate the severity of the damage.
- Then eliminate the threat that arose forlife and health. It is possible to do this when carrying out activities aimed at restoring breathing, heart activity. At the same time, they try to stop the bleeding or give an antidote (if necessary).
- After these activities, the provision of first aid is aimed at preventing possible complications. To do this, the wounds are bandaged, immobilized, and anesthetized.
- Then they support the basic functions before the arrival of the doctor or until the momentdelivery to a medical institution.
Methods of first aid
Timely assistance determines not onlycurrent, but also the outcome of the whole disease. Therefore, with severe bleeding, drowning, cessation of cardiac activity, and with an electric shock, it should be carried out immediately. In the event that a large number of people need help, then the severity of its provision determines the degree of severity. Provision of first aid includes a number of methods:
- Restoration of patency of paths, including breathing. This includes purification of the oropharynx, removal of sputum and other contents, exclusion of tongue licking, removal of foreign bodies.
- Artificial ventilation of lungs. The effectiveness of any mechanical ventilation is judged by how much the patency of the respiratory tract has been restored. Ventilation can be performed with the aid of an Ambu bag, a manual aspirator, and manual ventilator methods.
- Restoration of blood circulation. In this case, the first medical aid is performed by external cardiac massage. Orientation for it is the point above the breastbone, which is located at a distance of 3 or 4 cm above the connection of the sternum and costal arch. It also corresponds to the border between the lower 1/3 of the sternum and the middle part.
- First aid in case of injury. The most important rule that is worth knowing is that the wound can not be washed with water, filled with powders and medicines, as these procedures hamper the healing of the wound and contribute to the introduction of dirt from the skin. In addition, you can not remove blood clots and self-erase sand and soil, as you can even rub dirt into the damaged area.
Thus, the provision of first aid includes simple and reasonably appropriate measures aimed at protecting the life of the victim.