Formation of the Old Russian State
Preconditions for the formation of Old Russianstates arose as a result of the influence of a complex of external and internal, spiritual, political, socio-economic factors. However, first of all, it is necessary to take into account the economic changes of the Eastern Slavs. The surplus of agricultural products in some areas, folk crafts in others led to mutual exchange and promoted the development of trade. Together with this, conditions were formed for the separation of the princely-squad group from the community. Thus, military-management activity was separated from the production one.
Among the political factors affectingthe creation of an ancient Russian state, tribal clashes should be noted against the background of the complication of intra-tribal relations. These factors contributed to the acceleration of the establishment of princely power. The role of the squads and princes increased - they not only defended the tribe against external attacks, but also acted as judges of various disputes.
Together with this, inter-tribal struggle led tothe unification of several tribes around the strongest. Such unions became tribal princes. As a result, the princely power was strengthened, but the interests of the ruler over time were more at odds with the interests of fellow tribesmen.
Great influence on the formation of Old RussianThe state provided paganism, the development of spiritual representations of the Slavs. With the growth of the military power of the prince, who brought prey to the tribe, defended himself against external attacks, settled internal disputes, and grew his prestige. Along with this, the prince was alienated from the rest of the community.
Prince, famous for his military achievements,able to solve internal problems, perform complex management functions, more and more alienated from fellow tribesmen. The community, in turn, gave him supernatural power, saw in him the pledge of the tribe's prosperity in the future.
To external factors that influenced the formation ofOld Russian state, one should include strong pressure from the Normans and Khazars. The desire of these nationalities to control trade routes between the South, East and West provoked the acceleration of the formation of princely and squad groups that began to participate in the trade process. So, for example, products of crafts (furs, first of all) from fellow tribesmen were collected and changed to silver and prestigious products from foreign merchants, in addition, aliens and captured foreigners were sold to foreigners. Thus, the tribal structures became increasingly subordinate to the local nobility, which was increasingly isolated and enriched.
In addition, interaction with otherdeveloped countries made a change in the socio-political structure of the country. The fact that the Khazar Khaganate existed in the lower reaches of the Volga also influenced the formation of the ancient Russian state. This education ensured the protection of the Eastern Slavs from the attack of nomads. In past eras, raids on Russian territory significantly hampered the development of the tribes, hampered their work, the emergence of the state system.
Thus, in the first stage (from the beginning of the 8th to themiddle of the 9th century) the formation of the Old Russian state takes place through the formation of tribal centers and unions. In the 9th century a polyudye system emerged, collecting the tribute of the community members in favor of the prince. Presumably, at that time it was voluntary and was perceived by the tribesmen as compensation for administrative and military services.
At the second stage, external factors, the intervention of the Khazars and the Normans, exerted a great influence on the establishment of the state system.
According to the Tale of the Years, the Finno-Ugrians andthe Slavs in 862 turned to Ryurik with a proposal to reign over them. Having accepted the offer, Rurik sat down in Novgorod (according to some testimonies, in Staraya Ladoga). One of his brothers, Sineus, began to reign in Beloozero, and the second, Truvor, in Izborsk.