How is man evolving
In the process of evolution, the Indonesian tribe of Baggio acquired fantastic abilities as an opportunity to dive more than 60 meters, and also to hold the breath for about 13 minutes. This is made possible by the fact that they have a spleen enlarged by 50%. As a result, this is the first known in history history of human adaptation to deep diving.
For these abilities of the representatives of the Baggio tribe can rightly be called "people-fish."
For more than 1000 years, Baggios plowed the seas of South Asia on their houseboats, catching fish by diving behind it with spears.
Some representatives of this nation, armed with a sinker and goggles, are able to dive to a depth of 70 meters.
And in this case, it is the spleen that plays a key role, putting the diver’s body into survival mode.
As a result of immersion, the heart rate slows down, while blood is directed to vital organs, while the spleen is compressed to release cells with oxygen into the bloodstream.
Contraction of the spleen can raise the level of oxygen in the body by as much as 9%.
A new study found that the spiaceae of Baggio people are 50 percent larger than those of their neighbors of the Saluan tribe living on land.
Lead scientist Melissa Ilardo of the University of Cambridge, participating in the study, says: “Little is known about the human spleen from the point of view of physiology and genetics, but we know that diving deeper seals like Weddell seals have disproportionately large spleens . I think that if breeding increased the spleen of the seals, then the same could potentially happen to humans. ”
Since bajo do not dive to compete, it is not known for how long they can hold out under water.
True, one of the representatives of the tribe said that once he could have been under water for 13 minutes.
Ilardo spent several months in Indonesia, in the town of Jaya Bakti (Jaya Bakti), collecting genetic samples and conducting an ultrasound scan of the people of the people of Baggio and Saluan.
She found out that the spleens were enlarged among all the representatives of the people of Baggio, without exception, even those who do not dive under the water.
“People are pretty plastic creatures,” she said.“We can adapt to a number of different extreme conditions only due to a change in lifestyle or changes in our behavior, so it’s not a fact that we can acquire actual genetic adaptation to diving.”
The DNA analysis carried out showed that the PDO10A gene was present in the genetic code of the bajo, which the representatives of the Saluan tribe do not have. It is believed that it is this gene that changes the size of the spleen by regulating the levels of thyroid hormones.
Note that a report on this interesting study was published in the journal Cell.
I'm thinking, but why are we evolving - living in cities and sitting at a computer?
Let's learn more about their lives.
They call themselves "sea gypsies" or seamen bajao (bajo). This ethnic group of people consisting of several indigenous tribes of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, has perfectly adapted to life in the water.
They live a nomadic life, freely moving in the endless Indian Ocean, and their main occupation is fishing. They go ashore only for funerals, to sell their catches, to get fresh water or to repair a boat.
The sea for a given people is all: home, work, and entertainment. Baggio has a philosophical approach to life - they are content with a small, and at the same time absolutely happy. They don’t know how old they are and it doesn’t matter to them. They see the meaning of their life in real current events. They do not follow the time at all and do not count the dates. These people have no idea what electricity is, living on a light day.
Baggios do not know the letters, do not know how to write and read - they simply do not need these skills. They live and continue their kind in small huts built right on the water and fixed with the help of piles. Houses have no connection with the shore, so you can get into the house, only sailing on a boat. Between the houses communicate bridges. Children from a very young age (literally from the age of 5) begin to learn how to manage boats and fisheries.
And what in such conditions you can have fun in your free time from fishing? There is practically no such time, as fishing takes the whole daylight hours. However, in those days when there is no fish, bajo enjoy diving to the depths, competing who will make it deeper, or stay longer under water.Despite the fact that the sea is the daily and routine life of a given tribe, children get the joy of simply splashing in the water and collecting shells.
The Malays call this people the orang-louth, which means "people of the sea." Their religion is Sunni Islam, the language is the numerous dialects of the Austronesian language group with an admixture of those languages around whose territories the nomads settle.
Let my house float ...
Before you settle in the pile villages, you need to find a suitable place. Roma of the sea roam on boats of unprecedented purpose, called lepa-lepa. They have everything: a place to sleep, supplies of drinking water and food, kitchen utensils, kerosene lamps and much more. Boats are built by hand.
Inhabited and wander in boats the whole family. However, nothing prevents to build their own housing on the water, to be, as they say, the only owner in the house.
Amazingly, it was thanks to these boats that this people survived the famous tsunami in 2004, which claimed hundreds of thousands of human lives with little or no sacrifice.
Fisheries as a way to survive
From early childhood, the people of Baggio are learning to hunt underwater inhabitants and dive to great depths.As a result, the representatives of this ethnic group are excellent freedivers who dive without using scuba gear to a depth of 30 meters.
Very often, the bungee spoils the eardrums: naturally due to a drop in underwater pressure or punctured specifically so as not to feel pain during moments of deep and sudden diving. In addition to hearing impairment, you sometimes have to pay with your life for fishing: a caisson (or decompression) disease is an eternal companion of divers (the air in the blood vessels is transformed into bubbles, causing death).
As for the main occupation of sea gypsies, they are not always caught by fish in a humane and safe way. Most often, Malaysian bungee jam fish with dynamite. Skill "came" from the time of the Second World War. Fish are sold or exchanged for food or fresh water, so it needs a lot. However, mass fishing with the help of dynamite involuntarily reduces the number of marine inhabitants, which can not but affect the marine biogeocenosis.
Another way to fish is using potassium cyanide. The substance paralyzes the fish and you can simply take it with your bare hands.Such a lively, but paralyzed fish is valued at times more expensive than caught with dynamite. However, cyanide causes coral poisoning, which causes the destruction of entire reefs and the extinction of those fish that feed on these corals.
Modernity takes its
The modern era, nevertheless, takes its toll, and some of the bajo still agree and inhabit the land of the coastal island strip. Strange as it may seem, the younger generation of Badgey is also increasingly moving to dry land, not wanting to live by the rules of their ancestors. Young people are looking for work, normal conditions of study, plunging into ordinary life. However, the connection with water is still not lost, and fishing remains the basis of their foundations. This nation is not recognized by residents of other countries and nationalities, although the total number of the entire existing “maritime” population is almost 400 thousand. But it absolutely does not bother them to live in their own paradise.
Baggio consider themselves to be free citizens of the whole world, therefore they arbitrarily move in all sea water areas bordering countries. The government of these countries, of course, does not like it, people are caught by the border services, despite the fact that the Baggio formally belongs to one country or another.
It is unfortunate that due to poaching and an unconventional lifestyle, Baggio risks losing its culture and lifestyle. Authorities and all kinds of environmental services insist that the people completely migrated to the land, reducing levels of intervention in the marine world. The culture of these nomadic seafarers definitely seeks to decline, but I want to believe that international organizations for the protection of nature and tribes will not only restore the natural resources, but also preserve the rare peculiar culture "on the water".