How to divide a word into syllables? Open and closed syllables. Translation by Syllables
A syllable is the minimal pronunciation unit in the Russian language. It can consist of one or more sounds.
Pupils of schools and students of philologicaldirections often encounter tasks from the category: "Divide words into syllables". It would seem that it is very easy to cope with such a task. However, often people have a question: "How correctly to divide words into syllables?".
In the article you will find the answer to this question. You will get acquainted with the basic rules and learn how to teach a child to divide words into syllables.
Difficulties of the slogo part
Usually, there are no problems with breaking down intosyllables of simple words. Any of us will be able to cope with the slogose of the noun "water". But how to divide a word into syllables, if it is complex in its composition?
Take, for example, the participle "considered." How to properly draw a slogan: "ra-smo-tre-nny", "ra-ssmo-treni", "ra-ssmo-trehny"? The correct answer is the third option, but why? In order to understand, we will get acquainted with the basic rules of dividing words into syllables.
The basic rules of the slogan part
The first thing to remember is the quantitysyllables in a word is equal to the sum of the vowels that are included in its composition. The boundaries of the syllabic segment often do not coincide with the porphyring division, therefore, when analyzing, it is necessary to rely on the following rules:
- the syllabic sounds in the Russian language are vowel sounds;
- the syllable can not include more than one vowel;
- The syllable can consist of one vowel sound (o-water) or a combination of vowels and consonants. Consisting of two or more sounds, the syllable always begins with a consonant;
- All syllables in the Russian language tend to be open.
Open and closed syllables
In order to determine how to divide a word into syllables correctly, it is necessary to be able to distinguish them by type. All syllables in modern Russian are divided into two types: open and closed.
The open syllable always ends with a vowel sound (pro-in-yes, go-lo-va, ne-le-na). He can meet at the beginning, middle or end of a word.
The closed syllable ends in a consonant sound. Most often he appears at the end of the word (onions, smog, go-lod). Also, a closed syllable can be formed if in the middle of the word there is a sonorous consonant (silk-ki, wolves, tanks).
If in the middle of the word there is a group of several consonants, they usually go back to the beginning of the syllable, leaving the previous one open (di-who-background, na-zva-no-e, re-da-kti-ro-wa-ni-e).
Features of the syllabic section
Slogorazdel in Russian is not only subject tothe law of an open syllable, but also to the law of an ascending sonority. The bottom line is that the syllables in the word are arranged incrementally: from less sonorous to more. Several rules follow from this. They will tell you how to correctly divide words into syllables:
- If there is a consonant in the word that stands between two vowels, it goes to the next syllable (to-pot, poole-met, ex-water, i-ko-na, ka-li-na);
- The combination of several noisy (all consonants, except sonar) are referred to the following syllable (e-house, ruk-chka, mo-li-tva, ka-li-taka);
- A group of noisy and sonorous consonant sounds is ranked in the second in turn syllable (va-zhny, co-pro-ti-vle-no-e, o-smy-sled-ni-e);
- Several sonorous consonants, standing in one word between the vowels, are referred to the following syllable (a-lmaz, a-rmi-ya, in my opinion);
- In the combinations of sonorous and noisy between the vowels, the first sound goes to the syllable in front of it (nel-za, polka, nor-ka, mer-tsa-ni-e, thief-si-nka);
- Repeated consonants go back to the syllable that follows them (in-gress, Ro-ssi-I, co-lo-nna, a-lle-I);
- If the word "d" appears in front of the sonorous or noisy, it is assigned to the previous syllable (my-va, ley-ka, ka-na-rai-ka, te-lo-grey-ka).
Remember these rules are not difficult, but they will help you easily determine how to divide the word into syllables correctly.
The algorithm for the execution of the syllabic section
We have analyzed a theory that will help us to divide words by syllables. Now let's move on to the practical part. Successfully determine how many syllables in a word a simple plan will help us:
- Write out the word given in the assignment on a separate sheet.
- Determine how many vowel sounds are included in its composition.
- Draw the initial syllable after each vowel sound.
- See if there are any difficult places in the word: groups of consonants, sonorous or doubled sounds.
- If so, change the syllable boundary according to the rules.
It should be remembered that the transfer of syllables and syllabics are not equal to each other. The word is translated based on the morphemic composition of the word. We can not separate the letter from the prefix or the suffix.
Word division by syllables allows to split wholemorphemes to pieces in accordance with the rules of the slogose. For example, consider the verb "raise". For the transfer it will be divided as follows: "sub-no-mother". The division by syllables will be different: "on-days-mother."
Teach children to read by syllables
Now many mothers try to teach to readyour child as early as possible. One of the most effective ways in this matter is reading by syllables. The kid can not explain how to divide the word into syllables with the help of complex rules. Therefore, the game methods are used.
Begin to deal with the child can be from oneof the year. Exercises aimed at developing reading skills, contribute to memory improvement, the development of abstract thinking. They teach the child to think logically, to compare. In addition, classes can be turned into a fun game.
How to teach a child to divide words into syllables?
First, learn the alphabet with the child. This will help books with bright pictures, cubes. Planks, on which it is possible to fix colored letters.
Then explain that there are vowels and consonants. Vowels are pronounced long and sonorous. Consonants - short and deaf. Tell the child that the longest stretch of the stressed syllable.
Speak out a few simple words andAsk the child to determine which sound is stressed. Choose nouns with which the baby is familiar. For the training words "soap", "water", "hand", "foot", "face", "body" are suitable.
Explain that the number of vowels isnumber of syllables. If the child already knows how to count, try to find out with him how many vowels in these words: "carrots", "onions", "plate", "cabbage", "toy", "TV."
After acquainting the child with the basics, go to the game exercises.
Make cards on which will be writtensyllables for each consonant letter of the alphabet. In order to systematize the methodology, arrange combinations of consonants and vowels in the same order on each card. For example: "ma, mea, we, mi, mo, me, mu, mu".
Give the child a card, let him look at thesyllables, while you read them out loud, and repeats. This exercise will help to develop visual memory. Over time, the child will be able to recognize the syllables and pronounce them without your help.
Make the tablets on which you will writecombination of letters. Ask the child to compose a word and read it. To begin with, offer him cards with syllables "ma", "na". Let the child compose well-known words to him: "Mom" and "Dad."
Learn to read the syllables of the child will help the game blocks, which are drawn combinations of vowels and consonants. Magnetic letters sets.
Try to come up with different games for the baby to stir up interest. For example, ask him to send one letter to visit the other and see what happened.
We pass from simple to complex
When the child learns the basics, begin to complicate the tasks. In this case, continue to conduct classes in a game form.
Offer the child a few words that differ only by one letter. Let him determine the difference between them. For example, the words: "soap" and "cute", "house" and "smoke."
Choose a dozen words consisting of two syllables. Each syllable will require one card. Stir the leaves and ask the child to make up words from them. Suitable nouns "frame", "mom", "dad", "summer house", "hand", "foot", "face", "soap", "body", "meat".
Teach the child to do the transfer by syllables. To do this, write down a few two-syllable words on the sheet. Let the child draw a line after each vowel, and then say aloud, making small pauses in place of the slogan.
Take two sheets with the same text. Let it be a fairy tale or a small nursery rhyme. Ask the child to follow the words while you are reading. After a while, pause and ask the child where you left off.
Read with the kid a small fairy tale about the roles.
For classes of any kind choose funnychildren's texts that are of interest to the child. It can be poems, fairy tales, small articles about animals. Ask to retell the reading. This will help develop the memory and speech of the baby.
A few tips for those who want to teach the child to read
Before you begin, make sure that your child is ready to learn. He has a speech, he can make small stories. No pronunciation defects.
Start with a simple, gradually go to the complex. On each new lesson, repeat the material of the previous one.
Stick to the gaming technique. It will help you to instill a love of reading and a desire to learn.
Classes for learning syllables begin with the simplest combinations. Use words that are familiar to the child. Gradually complicate the workouts.
Do not expect rapid results from the child. Learn to read it will be gradual. First, let him master monosyllabic and two-syllable words. Pick up tasks with them until the kid starts to cope on "excellent".
When the easy words are finished, try to train reading whole sentences by syllables. Gradually increase the amount of reading.
The simple tips given in this article will help to easily and effectively teach your child to read by syllables. In this case, the kid will spend time with pleasure, performing game tasks.
In addition to reading skills, memory, attentiveness, logical and abstract thinking will develop, the horizon of the child will expand.