How to recognize pancreatitis in time and start treating it?
Description of the disease
In the normal state, a number of enzymes are formed inside the human pancreas, as well as hormones that are used in the regulation of digestion and metabolism. Together with the active substances produced in the liver, they allow you to digest heavy foods, and also break down carbohydrates and regulate the level of sugar in the blood and tissues. At the same time, pancreatic enzymes themselves are inactive - they begin to act only inside the duodenum, where digestion occurs. However, diseases disrupt this process, and the activity of the body is completely transformed.
As a result of the disease, the outflow of enzymes and biologically active substances of another type becomes very difficult, and they accumulate inside the pancreas itself. Symptoms of the disease are caused by the fact that the activation of these drugs, which facilitate digestion, occurs before they enter the intestine, which leads to a rapid disintegration of the inner walls of the organ itself.
If a person does not receive appropriate treatment, there is a very big chance that the symptoms of pancreatic disease will turn into a chronic course, which is characterized by gradual suppression of most metabolic processes. At the same time there is a strong damage to the liver and gallbladder, which leads to the impossibility of normal digestion.
In chronic disease, pancreatic tissue is converted into scar tissue - the body gradually ceases to perform its function, which leads to death after a certain period of time.
Diagnosis of the disease
If you experience acute pancreatitis, the symptoms will not be long in coming:
- The first is a sharp pain in the right hypochondrium (less often in the left part). Patients who have inflammation of the pancreas, describe pain syndrome as a sensation of a hot needle passing through the internal organs.
- After about 2-3 hours, the pain begins to spread throughout the body - it touches the liver, stomach, intestines, diaphragm and even the heart.
A specific feature of pancreatic inflammation is the lack of response to such drugs as analgin derivatives and antispasmodics. When the disease begins vomiting, which with the most acute form can be rampant, lasting more than 30 minutes in a row. If you do not start treatment during the first few hours, the patient has a loss of coordination, dizziness, fainting.
During the disease, which is an acute inflammation of the pancreas, in almost one hundred percent of cases there is diarrhea with a change in stool. Feces during illness becomes viscous, gray or pale brown. By the way, if it contains a large amount of fat, there are symptoms of liver dysfunction.
When a patient is hospitalized with inflammation of the pancreas, they are subjected to an ultrasound scan - in the picture, uneven blurred edges appear in the pancreas, due to inflammation of the soft tissues.If you suspect the symptoms of such a severe disease, they also make a general biochemical blood test - the content of alpha-amylase protein in it is several dozen times higher than normal. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor immediately begins drug treatment.
The first step is to block the enzymes of the pancreas, for which the corresponding substances are introduced into the blood and the digestive system. Accordingly, the patient is shown a diet with a minimum amount of fat and hard dietary fiber until the cause of the disease is eliminated. In addition, treatment includes the use of painkillers that allow the patient to carry out normal vital activity and antispasmodics, preventing the occurrence of a new attack that can cause irreparable damage.
In the chronic course of the disease, the person is disturbed by girdling pains under the ribs, which at night can become unbearable, which is associated with the accumulation of enzymes in the absence of movement and a lying position. Symptoms are consistently weakened and amplified, the state of the body changes in waves. During an exacerbation, persistent vomiting can occur, which especially occurs after taking alcohol, as well as painful diarrhea.
If a patient with inflammation of the pancreas is not treated, he gradually loses his appetite, the quality of digestion deteriorates, the body ceases to receive the necessary substances, resulting in a very serious and dangerous exhaustion.
In particular, complications most commonly concern the gallbladder. In acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis often occurs, which is accompanied by the movement of pain into the lower iliac region and its significant increase.Inflammation of the pancreas can also trigger the onset of the formation of stones in the gallbladder. Due to this treatment often includes the use of choleretic drugs.
In addition, disruption of the production of enzymes in a certain part of the digestive system leads to a complete imbalance. In particular, the secretion of liver enzymes decreases, and insulin production decreases. In the short term, damage to the liver leads to the impossibility of digesting fatty foods and the accumulation in the tissues of large amounts of carbohydrates. If we talk about the long term, then the patient after a certain time there are symptoms of diabetes, which is characteristic of the chronic form of the disease.
In addition to damage to the liver, which can cause incurable diseases, the patient is also threatened by other problems that pose even greater danger. In the case of pancreatic disease, an infection often penetrates the digestive system, which does not meet resistance as a result of the general weakening of the body. It finds the ideal nutrient medium in the affected organ, which leads to the formation of:
- purulent abscesses;
- reborn tissue that increases the risk of cancer;
- at the last stage - to the destruction of the pancreas and the formation of peritonitis with a high probability of fatal outcome.
In addition, pancreatitis can cause internal bleeding, in which the abdominal cavity is filled with fluid, leading to the failure of various organs. Therefore, doctors recommend not to delay and begin treatment of inflammation of the pancreas as early as possible - ideally, the blocking of enzymes should begin within a few hours after the first symptoms are detected.