Can I deal with food allergies?
Concept and classification
The history of allergy research is rooted in the distant past. Even in the writings of Hippocrates, the specific reaction of a person to whole milk is mentioned, and this response occurs only in some people.
Under this term is meant an allergic reaction to food or to their components. At the same time, patients have different types of immune response to the stimulus.
But Hippocrates described only atypical reactions. The very first references to anaphylactic shock are dated to the 16th to 17th centuries; such a dangerous response of the organism arose as a reaction to eggs and fish. However, no one could explain the mechanisms of allergy formation at that time.
A breakthrough in the study of such reactions was the study of the 20th century.
But even modern medicine can not give a clear classification of the phenomenon of food allergies.
After all, the same product from two different people with an identical habitat, similar heredity and a spectrum of chronic illnesses can have completely different reactions.
This is due to the fact that the formation of the response occurs with the involvement of various immune mechanisms.
There are such types of them:
- IgE – mediated;
- non – IgE – mediated;
- mixed (IgE– and non – IgE – mediated factors working together).
If immune factors are not involved in the formation of the body's response to food, then the patient suffers from food intolerance or pseudo-allergies.
This condition is very common and is triggered by various factors, including psychosomatic abnormalities in the patient.
The classification of the disease is not too developed.
So, depending on the age of the patient, there are 2 groups:
Adult reaction (this is a person whose illness arose after the age of majority).
Usually the causes of this condition are environmental factors and psychosomatic components.
Food allergies in children.
This is a reaction that occurred at an early age. This form is more common, since babies have not yet formed immunity, and atypical reactions to various foods are common. This disease often passes with age.
Depending on the severity, 3 more groups of reactions are distinguished:
Also allocate 2 more forms of pathology, depending on the order of formation of the reaction:
This is an allergy that has arisen first. For example, on peanuts.
This is the reaction that appeared on its background. Typically, this answer applies to a similar group of products. In the example with peanuts, the likelihood of a response to other legumes is high.
Also distinguish the age group of reactions. This is the so-called food allergy in infants. After all, the response of the body in the form of diathesis in babies is observed on almost every new product.
Usually this is due to the unpreparedness of the gastrointestinal tract and no more. Treatment is the right diet.
Causes of food allergies
Predict 100% that this pathology will be impossible for a child.
But the leading doctors of the world identify several reasons for the development of food allergies, the presence of which significantly increases the risk of developing the disease:
If there is a reaction from the mother or the father, or from two parents, the likelihood of a similar response in the baby increases.But it is necessary to understand that food allergy in children often occurs completely on other products.
Early introduction of complementary foods.
Often the cause of the disease is banal unpreparedness of the digestive tract to a certain product. In most cases, the reactions provoked by this factor go off on their own up to 3-5 years.
Allergic reactions, including the immune response to food, are more common in persons living in ecologically unfavorable areas.
As you can see, in most cases it is impossible to prevent the occurrence of this pathology.
Therefore, persons suffering from such an allergy can only control their diet by excluding products from the risk group. Proper diet - this is the treatment.
Common types of reactions and their symptoms
Doctors identify several diseases and symptoms triggered by food allergies.
Among them are:
- various forms of atopic dermatitis;
- the development of dermatitis herpetiformis;
- oral allergic syndrome;
- enterocolitis, triggered by dietary proteins;
- proctitis caused by proteins in food;
- enteropathy triggered by dietary proteins;
- the appearance of celiac disease;
- eosinophilic gastroenteritis;
- development of bronchial asthma;
- the progression of allergic rhinitis;
- Gainer's syndrome;
- anaphylactic shock.
Each of these reactions has its own symptoms and requires more detailed consideration. Although the treatment of many - a diet and proper nutrition.
Adequate treatment should be prescribed by a doctor, as well as advising what kind of diet is suitable.
This is a common form of reaction to food allergens. Recognizing this pathology is quite simple, because the character of the rash is transient (it quickly appears and quickly disappears).
On the skin appear blisters (swollen skin), having a different shape, clear outlines. Usually this rash has a wide range of shades from white to deep red.
The number and size of the blisters may vary. If you notice a hives, it is worth going to a hypo-allergenic diet.
By itself, this rash is not dangerous. But if the allergen is not removed, then the likelihood of more complex reactions, including anaphylaxis, is high.
This is a food allergy whose symptoms usually disturb babies.
In fact, diathesis is an allergic dermatitis or skin immune response to an allergen.
This reaction can be provoked not only by food, but also by other irritants, therefore it is not specific.
Among the symptoms of diathesis is worth highlighting:
- redness of the dermis;
- peeling and itching of the skin;
- the appearance of a red rash on various parts of the body;
- cracking of the dermis;
- development of ulcers in the affected areas.
This condition greatly disturbs the child and requires urgent correction. After all, there is a high risk of scratching rashes and the accession of a bacterial infection.
This is a specific manifestation of food allergies. For this pathology characterized by rashes of a different nature in the anus.
These may be the following types of rash:
These phenomena are accompanied by itching and discomfort. Also, in the absence of a timely reaction and elimination of the allergen, hemorrhagic phenomena in the area of the palms and feet may also be observed.
Oral Allergic Syndrome
This term refers to the swelling of the mouth and lips associated with contact with the allergen.
More often there is such a food allergy in adults, but children are also subject to this phenomenon.
To distinguish this pathology from other ailments can be on the following grounds:
- Edema is pronounced and occurs in minutes after a meal containing an allergen.
- Itching appears in the affected area.
- Edema covers lips, tongue and palate.
This reaction can be triggered by apples, hazelnuts, celery, carrots, cherries, apricots, plums, peaches, brazil nuts, honey and other products.
Proper diet involves the rejection of problem foods - this is the treatment.
This is a severe reaction to the allergen from the gastrointestinal tract. Typically, this phenomenon provokes cow's milk, eggs, wheat, rice and corn porridge, as well as peas.
Symptoms of the disease appear after 1 - 10 hours after consuming the allergen and manifests itself in the following phenomena:
- severe vomiting;
- profuse diarrhea;
- shock state of the body, intoxication.
This pathology requires urgent elimination of the allergen and is especially dangerous for infants. After all, the children of the first months of life usually suffer from this type of food allergies.
Therefore, it is important to identify the wrong product and make the diet based on products without it. This treatment will help to cope with the disease.
Proctitis caused by proteins in food
This is an unpleasant pathology triggered by allergies to mixtures made using soy or cow's milk.
This disease usually affects infants and is manifested in the form of blood in the stool.
Diagnosis is often difficult, so the bleeding does not stop for several weeks.
After identifying the disease and exclusion of allergens, the disappearance of red impurities occurs in just 72 hours.
But it is worth remembering that the lack of clear blood does not mean a complete cessation of bleeding.Usually in the feces find hidden blood for a couple of days a few weeks.
Enteropathy triggered by dietary proteins
Typically, this pathology is caused by the body's response to the consumption of cow's milk, soy, wheat, and other products containing protein.
At the same time, there are signs of atrophy of the villi in the intestine, cell infiltration - this information can be obtained by conducting a biopsy.
Enteropathy often affects infants, but doctors have seen cases of the development of the disease and at a later age.
You can recognize the disease by the following symptoms:
- profuse diarrhea;
- poor weight gain;
- the appearance of puffiness (not always).
In most cases, the disease itself passes at the age of 1 - 3 years. This is due to the emergence of tolerance to cow milk proteins.
This is the same enteropathy, but caused by a specific protein that contains gliadin.
This component is inherent in wheat, barley groats, rice and oats.
At the same time, histology demonstrates smoothing of the villi typical of enteropathy and cell infiltration in the intestine.
This deficiency is easily corrected by excluding this food from the diet.
Symptoms of the disease is quite complicated:
- weight loss;
- the occurrence of systematic diarrhea;
- Fat content in feces increased;
- ulceration in the area of the mouth is likely (not always).
This pathology is diagnosed in early childhood and requires urgent correction of the diet.
This is a rare pathology that may be associated with food allergies.
Patients report these symptoms:
- severe pain in the abdomen, having a cramping character;
- diarrhea, while separable has a watery character;
- weight loss;
- possible intestinal obstruction (with the defeat of the muscular layer and submucosal layer);
- pleural effusion
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, provoked by allergies, requires not only the correction of the diet, but also full treatment.
This reaction is rare and can be triggered by peanuts and hazelnuts. It is also possible the development of asthma by inhalation of aerosols, which include food allergens.
The patient notes difficulty in breathing, there is not enough air, whistling sounds appear when trying to inhale. This condition requires urgent medical care, as triggered by edema.
This is a fairly common type of allergic reaction. The patient is worried about a strong chronic rhinitis, in which standard vasoconstrictor drugs give only a short-term effect.
This condition requires a transition to a hypoallergenic diet and comprehensive treatment. After all, such a runny nose can lead to a lack of oxygen and the development of a number of complications.
This is a dangerous reaction to cow's milk, affecting young children.
Symptoms are quite diverse:
- whistling while breathing;
- frequent infiltration in the lungs;
- hemosiderosis of the lungs;
- frequent pneumonia;
- the development of anemia (there are hidden bleeding);
- growth retardation of the baby;
- rhinitis (not always);
- pulmonary heart development (a dangerous complication);
- frequent otitis
- abdominal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, pain, etc.).
This condition requires urgent elimination of the allergen from the diet. However, with the reintroduction of cow's milk, symptoms may worsen. So, a diet without milk is the right treatment.
This is a severe systemic complication associated with the ingestion of a food allergen in the body. At the same time, laryngeal edema (angioedema) quickly forms and the victim stops breathing.
Also distinguish the following symptoms:
- the development of not only laryngeal edema, but also angioedema;
- the appearance of stridor;
- bronchial obstruction;
- severe shortness of breath;
- pain in the abdomen and in retrosternal space;
Anaphylaxis often ends in death. This condition can provoke nuts and seafood, less often anaphylaxis is associated with other elements of the food.
As you can see, a food allergic reaction is a dangerous condition that can lead to a number of unpleasant diseases and end in death.
Therefore, if you have identified an atypical reaction to food, be sure to exclude them from your diet.
Such precautions can save your life. In addition, a diet without a problem product is the only treatment.