Japanese poems: how to learn how to write a haiku?
The first Japanese poems, later called haiku, appeared in the XIV century. At first, they were part of another poetic form, but they emerged as an independent genre thanks to the creative work of the famous poet Matsuo Basho, whom Japanese poetry recognizes as the best master of Japanese tristias. And how to learn to write your own poems in the classic Japanese style, you will learn further.
What is a haiku?
Haiku is a traditional Japanese poetic form, consisting of three syllabic blocks, the first and third of which contain five syllables in each, and the second - seven, that is, in general, these Japanese poems consist of seventeen syllables. Otherwise, their structure can be written as 5-7-5. With syllabic versification, the stress is not important, there is no rhyme either - only the number of syllables matters.
In the original, Japanese haiku are written in one line (one column of hieroglyphs).But in translation into Russian and other languages, as a rule, European, it was customary to write data Japanese verses in the form of three lines, each of which corresponds to a separate syllabic block, that is, the first line of the three-thirds consists of five syllables, the second - from seven, the third - out of five.Little crab
He ran up the leg.
According to the semantic content, Japanese poems, using various means, depict natural phenomena and images that are inseparably connected with human life, emphasizing the unity of nature and man.
How is haiku different from hockey?
Probably, you might be confused by the fact that some Japanese poems are also called haiku, but there is an explanation for this confusion.
Initially, the word "hockey" meant the first stanzarenga- one of the many genres that includes ancient Japanese poetry. He could be called a poetic dialogue, or even a polylogue, because very often he was written by two poets or more. Literally, renga means stitching together.
The first rangi stanza is written out of seventeen syllables according to the scheme 5-7-5 - this is haiku. Then comes the second stanza of fourteen syllables - 7-7.The third and fourth stanzas, as well as all subsequent ones, repeat this pattern, that is, the rengi scheme looks like 5-7-5-7-7-7-7-7-7-7-7- ... 5-7-5-7-7. The number of stanzas is not limited in principle.
If we single out the first and second stanzas (5-7-5-7-7) from rang, we will get another popular poetic form, in which Japanese verses are still written - it consists of thirty-one syllables called tanka. In translations into European languages, the tank is written in the form of pentads.
Later, hockey was singled out as an independent genre, since Japanese poets began to write these verses outside the rengi framework. And in order to distinguish between independent Japanese trejds and the very first rengy stanza, in the 21st century, the Japanese poet Masaoka Siki proposed using the term “haiku” for the former. It is in this way that the Japanese themselves now call such trekishchies.
Japanese Triadings: Formal Elements
As we have already found out, if we write down the original Japanese haiku, as three-points, then each line will contain one syllabic block, five, seven and five syllables, respectively. In Russian, it is not possible to strictly observe this rule, because the length of words here is different from the length of words in Japanese.
Therefore, it was decided that Russian verses in structure may differ from the diagram 5-7-5, but the length of each line should not exceed ten syllables, and one of the lines should be longer than all the others.You smiled.
From the slow ice floe away
The bird takes off.
An important element iskigo- the so-called seasonal words. Their function is to designate the time of year or the period of time at which the action described in the poem takes place. Such a word either directly refers to the season of the year, for example, “summer morning”, or denotes an event related to this season, according to which the reader can immediately guess what period of time is depicted in the poem.
Japanese has its own Kigo, indicating the natural and cultural sights of Japan, and we have such words, for example, “first snowdrops” - this is spring, “first bell” - autumn, first September, etc.Although there is no rain
On the day of planting bamboo -
Cloak and umbrella.
The second component, which characterizes Japanese verses -kirejior the so-called cutting word.There are no analogs for him in other languages, therefore, when translating verses into Russian or writing original Russian three hundred words, the cutting words are replaced with punctuation marks, expressing them using intonation. In addition, all such Japanese trechshis can be written with a lowercase letter.
For Japanese poems, the notion of two parts is characteristic - the division of a poem into two parts, twelve and five syllables. In Russian, the haiku also needs to observe a two-part: not to write verses with three complete sentences, as well as not to write them down as one sentence. Both the first and the second part of the three-party should describe different things, but be interconnected in meaning to each other.Indian summer…
over the street preacher
Writing Japanese verses correctly: basic principles of haiku
- Writing a haiku is quite different from writing classic rhymed poems. To write poems in the Japanese style, you need to learn to use the minimum number of words, but filled with the necessary meaning, and cut off all unnecessary. It is important to avoid duplication, tautology, and cognates, if possible.To be able to say a lot in a small way is the main principle of writing Japanese trinit.
- Learn to convey meaning without literally describing it. The author has the right to understatement: his task is to cause readers certain feelings and sensations, rather than chew them in detail. Readers need to independently think and understand the content laid down by the author. But at the same time, the given content should be easily accessible for understanding; the reader should not sit for hours and solve only one triple.
Revealing and ...
I fold the umbrella.
- Japanese haiku do not tolerate pathos and artificiality. The art of making a three-tree is based on sincerity, so do not compose what cannot really happen. Such Japanese poetry should be understandable to all, so do not use slang words and expressions when writing.
- A haiku should be written only in the form of the present tense, since these Japanese poems depict only those events that have just happened and were seen, heard or felt by the author.
- Japanese poetry is richer in homonyms than Russian, but when writing Russian tristiy one should not miss the opportunity to use a pun.
Torn soul in the wind ...
Goodbye and do not cry.
- A technique that is often used by Japanese poets is a comparison of various phenomena and objects. The main condition is the use of such comparisons that happen by themselves and which do not need to be supported by comparative words and the conjunctions "as if", "like", etc.
the neighbor goes to the courtyard
with your path.
We hope that our advice will help you master the haiku. And now we offer you to learn from the best and watch the following video, where Japanese poetry is viewed, in particular, such famous Japanese poets as Matsuo Basho, Kobayashi Issa, Esa Buson and many others.