Jerusalem: the history of the foundation of the holy city
In the history of mankind there were many famouscities. However, the most mysterious of them was Jerusalem. The history of this place knew more wars than any other inhabited place on the planet. Despite this, the city survived and continues to flourish today, being a shrine for the three religions.
History of the Ancients: Jerusalem in the Dohaanaan Period
As evidenced by archaeological findings onterritory of the sacred city, the first settlements of people were here for 3000 years before Christ. The first written mention of the name of the town Rushalimum dates back to the XIX-XVIII centuries BC. e. Probably, the inhabitants of Jerusalem already at that time were at enmity with the Egyptians, since the name of the city was written in ritual inscriptions of curses for the enemies of Egypt.
On the origin of the name of the settlement godifferent versions. Thus, the earliest is the name Irushalem, which means that the city was under the protection of some ancient deity. In other manuscripts, the name is associated with the word "peace" ("shalom"). But in the first book, the Bible, Jerusalem is called Shalem, which means "Canaan". This is due to the fact that before the Jews the city belonged to the Canaanite pagan tribes.
Jerusalem in the Canaanite Period
The history of Jerusalem at this time, although it containsfew written testimonies, but full of interesting events. Thus, having turned into a city-state, Jerusalem played an important role in its region. They were ruled by a dynasty of kings who simultaneously performed the role of the priests of an unknown deity - the patron of the city.
In the XIV-XII centuries BC. e. twelve tribes of Israel are returning from Egypt. Under the leadership of Joshua, they conquer the city-state, breaking the resistance of the five neighboring kings who united against them. However, the resistance of the local population was too active, and, unable to keep the city, the Jews gave it to the people of the Jebusites.
Jerusalem is the capital of King David
For many years remained under the authority ofthe Jebusite of Jerusalem. The history of the city at that time did not contain particularly striking events - the constant wars between Jews and the Jebusites exhausted it. However, only in the X century BC. e. under the leadership of King David, the city was finally conquered by the Jews. The Jebusites were driven out of the central part of Jerusalem, but for a long time they still lived on the outskirts.
After conquering Jerusalem, David declared the cityproperty of the tribe of Judah, to which he belonged. Moreover, over time, Jerusalem received the status of the royal capital. With the transfer to the city of the shrine of the Jews, the Ark of the Covenant, the history of Jerusalem as a religious center began.
King David during the reign of many thingsmade for the development of the city. However, truly "pearl" Jerusalem became under the rule of his son - Solomon. This king built a majestic Temple, in which the Ark of the Covenant was kept for many years. Also under Solomon, the Jebusites were finally expelled from the city, and Jerusalem itself became one of the richest settlements in the region. However, after the death of Solomon, there was no decent receiver, and the kingdom of the Jews split into two states: the Northern and Southern. Remained in the possession of the dynasty of David, the ruling South Kingdom, Jerusalem.
The history of the holy city in the years to come -this is a list of wars. So, ten years after Solomon's death, the Egyptian king attacked Jerusalem. To save the shrine, the reigning king Rehoboam pays a huge ransom, thus destroying the economy of the city.
For the next two hundred years, Jerusalem waswas captured and partially destroyed by the ruler of the Northern Kingdom of the Jews, and later - by the Syrians. During the Egyptian-Babylonian War, the holy city for a short time belonged to the Egyptians, and then was conquered by the Babylonians. In retaliation for the rebellion of the Jews, the ruler of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, destroyed the city almost to the ground, and relocated a large part of the population to his country.
The Second Temple Period
After the destruction of Nebuchadnezzar seventy yearsJerusalem was empty. The history of the Jews who were resettled in Babylon over the years is full of amazing examples of heroism and faithfulness to their religion and traditions. Jerusalem for them became a symbol of freedom, and therefore they dreamed of returning there and rebuilding it. However, the Jews obtained this opportunity only after the conquest of the Babylonians by the Persians. The Persian king Cyrus allowed the descendants of Abraham to return home and restore Jerusalem.
88 years after the destruction of the holy city, hewas partially restored, especially the Temple, in which they began to conduct the ceremonies again. In the next five centuries, until the birth of Jesus, passed from one conqueror to another, Jerusalem. The history of the holy city in this period is the unceasing struggle of the Jews for independence, which has not been crowned with success. In the IV century BC. e. Jerusalem was captured by Alexander the Great, and later by his successor Ptolemy I. Despite dependence on Greeks and Egyptians, Jews had autonomy, which allowed Israel to prosper.
In the II century BC. e. the Hellenization of the population of Jerusalem begins. The temple is robbed and turned into a sanctuary of the supreme god of the Greeks of Zeus. Such an act causes Jews to mass protests, which turn into an uprising led by Judah Maccabee. The rebels manage to seize part of Jerusalem and purify the Temple of the pagan objects of worship.
Jerusalem in the time of Jesus Christ. Roman and Byzantine periods
In the middle of the I century BC. e. becomes one of the provinces of the Roman Empire Jerusalem. The history of the city during this period is full of events important for one of the most widespread and influential world religions - Christianity. After all, during the reign of the Roman emperor Octavian Augustus (in Jerusalem, King Herod the Great ruled) Jesus Christ was born. After only 33 years of age, because of the jealousy and intrigues of Jewish spiritual leaders, He was crucified in Jerusalem on Mount Calvary.
After the resurrection and ascension of Christ, the disciplesbegan to spread His doctrine. However, the Jews themselves reacted negatively to the new religion and began to oppress their brothers professing it. Continuing to dream of independence, in the second half of the first century the Jews raised an uprising. For 4 years they held Jerusalem, until the emperor Titus came to power in Rome, who brutally suppressed the uprising, burned the Temple and destroyed the city. The next few decades, Jerusalem was in ruins.
During the reign of Emperor Hadrian onthe ruins of the city was founded by the Roman colony of Elia Capitolina. Because of the desecration of the holy city, the Jews rebelled again and held Jerusalem for almost 3 years. When the city passed again to the Romans, the Jews were forbidden to live in it under pain of death, and the temple of Venus (Aphrodite) began to be built on Calvary.
After Christianity became officialthe religion of the empire, Jerusalem was rebuilt again by the order of Emperor Constantine. The pagan temples were destroyed, and Christian churches were erected on the site of the execution and burial of the body of Christ. Jews were now allowed to visit the city only on rare occasions.
During the reign of Byzantine rulersJulian, Evdokia and Justinian Jerusalem once again blossomed, becoming the capital of Christianity. Jews began to be treated better and sometimes allowed to settle in a sacred city. However, in the 7th century Jews united with the Persians, conquered Jerusalem and destroyed many Christian sanctuaries. In 16 years, the capital was conquered by the Byzantines, and the Jews were expelled.
Jerusalem under the rule of the Arabs
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, admirersfounded by him religion, Islam, led by Caliph Omar, master Jerusalem. Since then, for many years the city remains in the hands of the Arabs. It is noteworthy that when building mosques, Muslims did not destroy the shrines of other religions. They also allowed Christians and Jews to live and pray in the capital of now three religions. Since the VIII century, Jerusalem is gradually losing its status as the capital for the Arabs. In addition, right up to the advent of the Crusaders the religious wars in the city did not subside.
The conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders. Mameluk period
At the end of the eleventh century, the head of the Catholic ChurchUrban II initiated the conquest of Jerusalem by knights-crusaders. Having seized the city, the Crusaders declared him their capital and cut out all Arabs and Jews. In the first years of the reign of knights Templars in the city was a decline, but soon it was possible to stabilize the economy of Jerusalem at the expense of numerous pilgrims from Europe. Jews and Muslims were banned from living here again.
After the conquest of the religious capital by Saladin,it again became Muslim. Attempts by the crusaders to take possession of Jerusalem were unsuccessful. In the 30-40 years of the 13th century, the city was divided between Christians and Muslims. But soon the Khwarezmian army seized the city and ruined it.
From the middle of the 13th century Egypt was conqueredMuslim Mamelukes. For over 60 years, they belonged to Jerusalem. At that time, the Jews again had the opportunity to return to their homeland. However, the city did not receive huge economic development in this period.
Jerusalem in the Ottoman Empire. City under the rule of Great Britain
The XVI century was marked by the flowering of the Ottomanempire. Sultan Selim I was able to conquer the holy city of the three religions, and his son Suleiman for a long time was engaged in the reconstruction of Jerusalem. Over time, this sultan allowed Christian pilgrims to visit the holy city.
Years later, Jerusalem ceased to be perceivedTurks as a religious center and gradually fading away, turning into one of the fortresses for defense against nomadic tribes. But in later times his economy knew both ups and downs. Over the years, the main profit item became pilgrims, which became more and more. Here, the shrines of Muslims, Jews and various Christian denominations were built.
The capital of the three religions belonged to the Turksuntil 1917, when the Ottoman Empire, having lost the First World War, was destroyed. From that time until 1948, Jerusalem was ruled by Britain. The British government tried to give an opportunity to live peacefully in the city to all believers, regardless of denomination. In addition, the Jews could now settle in their ancient capital. Therefore, during the next decade their numbers increased, which contributed to the economic development of the city.
However, by the beginning of the 1930s, Muslims, noting the growththe number of Jewish population and fearing to lose their privileges, began to rebel. In the following years, because of the numerous Arab-Jewish conflicts, hundreds of people died in the city. Ultimately, the British, with the assistance of the UN, decide to make Jerusalem a free city, where Jews and Arabs can live.
Return of Jerusalem by the Jews. Modern Jerusalem
The announcement of a sacred city by an international city is notcould stop the Arab-Israeli conflicts, which soon turned into a war. As a result, in 1948 Israel became an independent country to which West Jerusalem had departed, but at the same time the area called the Old Town remained in the hands of Transjordan.
After years of wars and various treaties,which neither the Arabs, nor the Jews did not observe, in 1967 Jerusalem was again united and named the capital of the Israeli state. It is noteworthy that in 1988 Israel was declared the capital of the Palestinian state and is still officially included in its composition. However, both decisions have not yet been recognized by most countries of the world, including the UN.
Today, despite numerous disputes about thebelong to the city, in it live representatives of most nations. In addition to Jewish, Arabic, German and English, there are Russian communities. Being the capital of three religions, Jerusalem is full of Jewish and Christian temples and Muslim mosques built in different epochs. Thanks to tourism and the organized management system of the city today, Jerusalem is on the rise.
Wall of Tears
It is impossible not to mention the legendary Wailing Wall,considering the history of the sacred city, because this place is eager to visit everyone who came to Jerusalem. The Western Wall (the history of the Jews knows it as the Western Wall) is the only part of the structure of the Second Temple that has survived to this day. It is located near the Temple Mount in the Old Town. It is believed that on this very mountain once the ancestor of the Jews, Abraham was going to sacrifice his son Isaac.
Despite the multiple destruction of the city, the WallCrying stood and became a symbol of hope and firmness for the Jews. Since the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman emperor Titus, the Western Wall has become a place of prayer and sorrow for the Jews. For 19 years (since 1948), the Arabs did not allow Jews to this sacred place. But with the attainment of independence, millions of pilgrims from all religions come here every year. According to the Jewish tradition, the space near the wall is divided by a small wall so that men and women pray separately. Also popular among tourists is the tradition of leaving in between the ancient bricks of a note with cherished desires.
Museum "New Jerusalem": the history of the monastery
With the adoption of Christianity in the Roman Empireinterest in Jerusalem has increased. After the erection of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, many rulers wished to build churches similar to those in Jerusalem. Since then every temple or monastery, built in the likeness of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, was called "New Jerusalem". History knows many such New Jerusalem, later called the Kalvarians. It is worth noting that the European Kalvarias often copied the holy city itself, and not the device of the temple.
But in Russia at the beginning of the XVII century the patriarchNikon near Moscow built a copy of the Jerusalem church of the Holy Sepulcher, as well as a monastery called "New Jerusalem". The history of the monastery is more than three and a half centuries old. It was then, in 1656, the construction of the monastery complex was started, which was to be an exact copy of the sacred places for every Christian in Jerusalem. For ten years, Nikon supervised the construction and decoration of the monastery. However, later the patriarch fell into disgrace, and the final stages of the construction of the monastery were completed without him.
Being not only one of the most beautiful, but alsorich monasteries in the Russian Empire, New Jerusalem repeatedly tried to deprive the land of their possessions. But this was done only during the reign of Peter I. Fortunately, with the ascent to the throne of his daughter Elizabeth, who took the monastery under personal protection, the monastery blossomed again. This period of prosperity, when the monastery owned 22,000 acres of land and more than 10,000 peasants, was short-lived. After the accession of Catherine II during the reform of the withdrawal of land from the ownership of churches and monasteries, the monastery lost most of its possessions and existed only at the expense of pilgrims and donations. Fortunately, their number increased from year to year. And with the construction of the railway at the end of the XIX century, the number of pilgrims for the year exceeded thirty thousand people.
After the Revolution, in 1919, the history of the "NewJerusalem "is interrupted, as it is closed. And three years later, in its place open the Kunsthistorisches Museum. During the Second World War, German occupiers blew up many structures on the territory of the museum complex, in particular, the Resurrection Cathedral. After the victory, many buildings were restored, and since 1959 the museum was again open for visiting.
After the collapse of the USSR in 1993-1994, afterlong negotiations the museum was turned into a monastery. However, on its territory the Museum and Exhibition Complex named "New Jerusalem" continued to exist. Today, like a century ago, pilgrims from all over the world come here not only to admire this amazing monument of architecture, but also to pray.
Because of the love of mankind for wars, many greatthe cities of the past were destroyed, and today in their place there are only ruins. Fortunately, another fate befell the capital of three religions - Jerusalem. The history of this city has sixteen serious devastations, and each time, like the mythical bird Phoenix, Jerusalem rose from the ashes. And today the city is thriving, inviting everyone who wants to see with their own eyes the places where Jesus Christ lived and preached.