Levels of organization of living
In the world that surrounds us, we can distinguishseveral diverse interrelated biological levels, subordinate to a single hierarchy. Depending on their complexity, eight levels of structural organization of wildlife are distinguished.
The first on the list is molecular. It is with him that the levels of organization of the living begin. The object of research at this level are the molecules of proteins, carbohydrates, fats. It also includes molecules of lipids, nucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids and other macromolecules, of which any living cell consists. It is at the molecular level that the vital processes of even the most complex organism begin: the transformation of energy, the transfer of hereditary traits, the metabolism and so on.
Continues the levels of organization of living cellularlevel. As you know, a cell is a structural and functional unit, outside of which there is no life, development and reproduction. It is the unit of development of all living beings, both unicellular and multicellular.
Levels of living organization continue tissuelevel. Tissue is a collection of intercellular substance and cells that combines a similar origin and performed function. According to one of the classifications, six types of tissues are distinguished in plant organisms and four in animals. In plant it is: educational, integumentary, mechanical, excretory, conductive and basic tissue. Animals distinguish epithelial, muscular, nervous and connective, and each of them has certain properties and performs distinctive functions. For example, the nervous tissue carries out the connection of organs, tissues and systems of the body, and also regulates them. With its help, there is a reception of signals from the outside world, reception and their transmission to nerve endings.
In the levels of the structural organization of wildlifeenters and the organ level. An organ is understood to mean a part of a multicellular organism that has a certain form and performs a function. This functional unit is most often formed by several types of tissue, of which one predominates. In addition, the body can only be considered a separate part of the other functional units. For example, the human organs are: pituitary gland, stomach, intestine, uterus, adrenal glands, liver, heart, etc.
The levels of organization of livingorganism level, which in turn is divided into unicellular and multicellular. The simplest single-celled organism, as already becomes clear from the name, consists of a single cell, and a multicellular organism is formed by a combination of tissues and organs.
The next level is population-specific. A population is understood as the totality of individuals or organisms similar in structure, living in a certain area, not isolated from other areas, between which it is possible to cross. On the planet to date, recorded more than 1.5 million species of animals and about 500 thousand species of plants.
In the penultimate place isbiogeocoenotic level. Under the biogeocoenosis, the historically formed set of various species that interact with the environment surrounding them is wilted. At this level, there is a cycle of substances and energy, in fact it is a self-regulating stable ecosystem.
Completes the system's biosphere levellife. It on a global scale unites various biogeocenoses. In the biosphere there are all the cycles of energy and substances in the world, related to the vital activity of all organisms living on the planet.
Despite the fact that the levels of organization of the living are divided into eight parts, they are all interconnected. In this case, each level has its own characteristics, patterns and methods of research.