Lithium-ion batteries: characteristics and properties
Lithium-ion batteries at the momentare the most popular type of batteries used in different types of equipment: laptops, mobile phones, tablets and other equipment. Such recognition was given to this source of energy due to the fact that it is not required to service, and its energy density is very high.
Lithium-ion batteries have three generationsdevelopment. At first, lithium was used as negative plates, but because of this they were subject to an explosive effect. This was due to their repeated use. At the anodes appeared the formation, which led to the closure of the electrodes, which caused ignition or explosions. This problem was tried to solve using coal coke. So there were lithium-ion batteries of the second generation. And finally the problem was solved by replacing the material from which the anode is made from graphite.
Lithium-ion batteries are used togetherwith the control and monitoring system included in the kit of any battery of this type. This system guarantees the maximum lifetime of this element, limiting the charge current at the level of 95% from above, and the discharge by 15-20%. It is worth saying that in the event that the battery is discharged completely, it will lose the ability to recharge once it is connected to the mains. The problem can be solved by applying a pulse with a higher voltage, but this can have a very strong effect on the characteristics of the battery itself. It turns out that the above system is designed to prevent recharging and overheating associated with the intense charge.
Batteries of this type possessfollowing characteristics. Their operating voltage is 3.5-3.7 V. The temperature at which they can operate varies from -20 to +60 degrees Celsius. At the moment, there are batteries that are capable of operating at much lower temperatures. This type of battery has a self-discharge rate of 4-6% in the first month, which subsequently decreases significantly. For a year, the battery for laptops loses up to 10-20% of its capacity. The battery life is within 500-1000 cycles.
Storage of lithium-ion batteries
The most optimal storage conditionsBatteries of this type can be called a charge at the level of 40-75% of capacity, and the ambient temperature should be 5 degrees Celsius. Self-discharge is significantly reduced when stored in a cool place. You can store batteries for 24-60 months.
A distinctive feature of this type of sourceenergy is that under the influence of the charge it reduces the capacity. That is, the more you charge the battery, the less the life of the battery becomes. However, this disadvantage does not prevent us from using this type of batteries everywhere, which is justified by their positive characteristics. Today it is difficult to find a sphere where lithium-ion batteries would not find a worthy application.