Ontology is the philosophical doctrine of existence
Ontology is a philosophical study of natureexistence, the formation of reality, the main categories of being and their mutual relations. Traditionally, it is considered a part of such a philosophical branch as metaphysics. Ontology deals with questions about what exists, and how these entities can be grouped according to a single hierarchy, are divided according to similarities and differences. In addition to the fundamental ontology dealing with the universal laws of being, there are many subsections that have their subject particular phenomena (for example, the ontology of culture).
The word "ontology" is made up of Greek roots"Ontos," which means "existence; that which is, "and" logos, "that is, "Science, theory, research". And although it is of Greek origin, the first mention of the word occurs in texts written in Latin. In English, it appears in the dictionary of Nathaniel Bailey in 1721, where it is defined as an "abstract description of being." This, of course, confirms that at that time the word was already in use.
In analytical philosophy, ontology is a doctrine,which deals with the definition of the fundamental categories of being, and also asks in what sense the elements of this category can "exist". This study is aimed at being in itself, not having the purpose of finding out, for example, individual properties and facts relating to certain entities.
Trying to solve the problems of ontology, somephilosophers, in particular Platonists, argued that all names (including abstract nouns) refer to the real thing. Other philosophers have disputed this, suggesting that nouns do not always refer to things, but some of them imply an indication of a group of similar objects or phenomena. According to the latter, the mind, rather than pointing to existence, refers to a group of mental phenomena experienced by the personality. So, the word "society" is associated with the collective image of people possessing certain qualities, and the word "geometry" is associated with specific intellectual activity.
Between these opposites, representingrealism and nominalism, there are a number of other points of view, but any ontology is a science that should give an idea of what concepts refer to reality, which are not, for what reason and what categories we have as a result. When such research involves concepts like space, time, cause, happiness, contact, energy and God, ontology becomes fundamental in relation to many philosophical branches.
Thus, ontology is a philosophicalthe doctrine, to the fundamental questions of which is the problem of being as such. What is being and what can be called existing? Is it possible to divide the existent into categories, and if so, which ones? What is the meaning of being, the meaning of existence? Various thinkers throughout the history of philosophy give diverse answers to these questions, which may reflect the nature of a whole era or culture.