Prevention of tuberculosis - a set of measures to prevent the development of the disease
Prevention of tuberculosis provides for measures aimed at preventing the spread of this disease. It is divided into social, sanitary, chemoprophylaxis and vaccination.
Social prevention of tuberculosis
This type of prevention provides for various government measures aimed at raising the standard of living of the population, protecting the environment, developing physical education and sports.
Families of tuberculosis patients have primarythe right to housing in which the patient is allocated a separate room. Treatment in a hospital, a sanatorium and a dispensary is free of charge. For the period of treatment, patients newly diagnosed with tuberculosis receive a list of incapacity for work for up to ten months.
Sanitary preventive maintenance of a tuberculosis is directed onprevention of infection of healthy people from patients with this disease. It includes the improvement of foci of infection, sanitary and veterinary surveillance, as well as early detection, isolation and treatment of patients.
Prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis is carried out by fluorographic examination of the entire population, starting from the age of 12 years.
Vaccination is a preventive measuretuberculosis in children. All newborns are subject to it, except for those who have contraindications. The introduction of the BCG vaccine is contraindicated in conditions that include:
- elevated temperature;
- craniocerebral trauma, received during labor;
- the weight of the newborn is less than 2 kg;
- hemolytic disease of newborns;
- purulent-septic complications.
Vaccination is carried out on the 5th-7th day after birthsubcutaneous administration of 0.1 ml of TB vaccine BCG to the upper third of the shoulder. It contains weakened mycobacterium tuberculosis, which has lost its ability to cause disease, but has retained antigenic qualities. At the injection site a small pustule is formed, after which there is a scar indicating the effectiveness of the vaccination.
Immunity after the introduction of BCG is retained infor seven years. At the end of this period, a revaccination is made, to which all uninfected children are exposed. Before the revaccination, Mantoux test is done to identify tuberculosis infection. A positive Mantoux test with a papula of more than 20 mm is a contraindication to the re-inoculation.
Contraindications for revaccination:
- Previously transmitted tuberculosis or infection;
- a positive or questionable reaction to the Mantoux test;
- complications after the introduction of BCG;
- allergic diseases in the acute stage;
- immunodeficiency states.
Prevention of tuberculosis by pharmaceuticaldrugs, called chemoprophylaxis, is needed for people who are in contact with patients, people with increased sensitivity to tuberculin, as well as patients with inactive form of tuberculosis. To this end, use isoniazid 0.3 g twice daily for three months twice a year. To prevent recurrence of the disease, isoniazid is administered in combination with another antituberculous drug in the spring and autumn for one to three years after the clinical and radiological confirmation of the patient's recovery.
Conducting chemoprophylaxis allows several times to reduce the risk of developing the disease of people who have been in contact with patients with tuberculosis.
Compliance with all listed prevention measurestuberculosis prevents the spread of the incidence of this dangerous infectious disease, reduces the risk of developing severe forms, accompanied by various complications.