Sharp. What it is? Basic concepts
Anyone who is beginning to learn the basics of music,solfeggio or harmony, must necessarily have an idea of signs of alteration, among which there are two main ones: sharp and flat, which are used not only in the middle of a musical work, but also with a key. There is also a bekar - a sign that cancels changes in the pitch of any note. Now we will consider the topic "Sharp: what it is". Many music critics believe that this sign is used in music most often.
Sharp: what is it?
So, if we talk about what is sharp, for the simplest understanding we can say that this is an increase in the sound of a note by a half tone.
In music sharp can be used in severalvariants (especially if we consider that there is also such a concept as "double-sharp", meaning a double increase in tone, that is, one tone). The use of double sharps in music can be met quite rarely. Nevertheless, a little later we will dwell on this.
Sharp as key marks and not only
The sign sharp, as already mentioned, can be appliedand as a key sign, and as a sign of alteration in the middle of the work. The difference between these two options is that in the first case, the increase in the sound of certain notes extends to the entire musical composition. In other words, if the key indicates, for example, F-sharp, then the sign sharp sharpening of the note "fa" means in every measure and anywhere in the composition (unless otherwise indicated, for example, the use of the sign of the bekar, but only in one measure) .
In the second case, the situation is somewhat different. The sign sharp in the middle of the work (if there is none at the key) can also be present. Only here its effect (increasing the sound of a note) extends solely to the note or notes, before which it is placed within a single measure. In the next measure its action is automatically canceled.
Now consider the key sign sharp. What is this in terms of influencing certain notes of the whole work? As already mentioned, this is a method of setting the increase of notes in the entire work. What is most interesting, the sharps in the key (as well as the flat), have certain rules of construction. In this regard, and it turns out that the amount of scales, which is available today.
The sequence of sharps with the key looks likeas follows: fa, to, salt, re, la, mi, si. Incidentally, it should be noted that the flats have the reverse order. This rule must be learned by heart, because it is always possible to determine the basic tonality.
If anyone remembers, even in Soviet times, the children were taught to memorize these two sequences by means of rhymed couplets. One of the most famous is:
"Fa, to, salt, re, la, mi, si -
you bring me a scale! ".
Si, mi, la, re, salt, before, fa -
Wait for me. Till!".
The definition of the basic tone of the gamma in terms of sharps in the key
Knowing the sequences of signs with a key also has the opposite side. Consider exactly sharp. What is this in terms of defining tonalities?
Everything is very simple. On key signs, or rather, on the latter, it is quite easy to determine the basic tone of the gamut or harmony used. For major keys from the last sign you need to build up a small second (rise to a half-tone), and for a parallel minor to build a big second down (drop one tone).
This is easy to understand by a simple example. Let's say that there are three signs in the key: F-sharp, before-sharp and sharp-sharp. From the last sign (in this case, salt sharp) of a half tone up gives a key in A major, and the tone down is a F-sharp minor.
In principle, notes of sharp marks make it possible to produce, so to speak, and back calculations, that is, knowing the key tonality, you can immediately tell what signs it contains in the key.
Construction of some types of scales
As it is already clear, the basic gamma is played only with the use of signs with a key. Such majors and minors are called natural.
Of particular interest are harmonic andmelodic minors, although you can also find major types of this type (they are used quite rarely). In the harmonic minor, the VII step is additionally increased.
The melodic minor looks somewhat different. When the gamma is played up, steps VI and VII are raised, and in reverse order these signs are canceled, being replaced by bakers. Thus, for example, the melodic A-minor at the game in both directions looks like this: whether, si, before, re, mi, f-sharp, salt-dialect, salt (pure tone), fa (pure tone), mi , re, to, si, la. It is not difficult, perhaps, to note that the reverse sequence is nothing more than an ordinary natural minor.
Now we do not take into account some specificfrets such as Lydian, Mixolydian or some other, in which there are rules for raising or lowering some notes. They are already studied in music schools, and more in music schools and conservatories.
So, I think, with the question "Sharp. What is it? "We figured out, not to the full extent, as the solfeggio object implies, nevertheless, for some basic terms and rules at first it will be enough. If someone wants to continue their education, it is better to do it in a specialized educational institution.