Shortness of breath, expiratory: reasons. Shortness of breath, inspiratory and expiratory
Dyspnea of expiratory nature occurs when bronchospasm occurs. This breaks the patency of small bronchi. The bronchioles narrow, they contain a secret, and the mucous membrane swells.
Types of dyspnea
Difficulty breathing doctors are often calleddyspnoea. This is a respiratory function disorder that occurs with a number of diseases. Dyspnoea may be inspiratory. It is characterized by a labored inhalation. Such a form of dyspnea can arise in case of heart failure or upper respiratory tract infection. It can appear due to bronchospasm spasm, accumulation of pathological secretion, tumors compressing the respiratory tract, edema of the mucosa.
Delayed exhalation, at which one can be hearda small whistle, is a sign that the expiration of dyspnea expiratory. It occurs when swelling of the mucous membrane, accumulation in the bronchioles of a secret or the appearance of obstructions that impair the patency of the small bronchi.
There is also mixed shortness of breath. It is characteristic of acute respiratory failure.
It must be understood that shortness of breath - inspiratory and expiratory - is caused by different reasons. Therefore, there are different approaches to the treatment of these conditions.
Causes of respiratory distress
People suffering from bronchial asthma or frequentobstructive bronchitis, know what symptoms accompany these diseases. One of their main symptoms is the appearance of dyspnea. It is characterized by a delayed expiration, which is accompanied by a whistle. The thorax almost does not participate in breathing. She is constantly in a position typical for inspiration.
Espiratory dyspnea is typical for such diseases as:
- bronchial asthma;
bronchiolitis or obstructive bronchitis;
- chronic lung anemia, characterized by loss of tissue elasticity;
- Bronchial tumors;
- Pneumosclerosis of the lungs.
It can also appear when hit in arespiratory tract of foreign body. But with the appearance of an obstacle in the trachea and larynx, inspiratory dyspnea appears. But with the narrowing of the large bronchus and trachea, it is difficult to breathe in and out.
If there is a malfunction of the lungs,shortness of breath, expiratory. In this case, the inhalation is normal, and the exhalation is difficult. To release air from the lungs, the patient is forced to make efforts. Breathing muscles start to work more actively.
Many complain of pain in the area of the chest. Cyanosis of the lips can also develop, the skin becomes paler. People with this kind of dyspnea often have increased sweating. With the aggravation of the situation, the skin can acquire a gray tinge, markedly growing weakness.
Despite the fact that with expiratory dyspneaExhalation is difficult, the patient may have an attack of suffocation. But dyspnoea can also be unprintable. The intensity of dyspnea manifestations will depend on the reasons for which it appeared, from the stage of the disease, the presence of sputum.
With the development of this type of dyspnea air can enter the lungs, but because of the edema and spasm of the walls of the bronchi, it does not completely exit. Often the situation is complicated by the accumulation of viscous mucus.
It is not always possible to understand that the patient has had trouble breathing. In order to pay attention in time and notice the onset of an attack before complications arise, one must know the signs of expiratory dyspnea.
One of the main points on whichpay attention, is the length of the output. It increases noticeably. In some cases, its duration may exceed the inspiratory length by a factor of 2. Exhalation is accompanied by considerable muscle tension. Symptoms of a change in intrathoracic pressure also appear. This is evidenced by the bulging and falling of intercostal spaces. Simultaneously, the veins of the neck become visible on the exhalation.
Expiratory dyspnea is characteristic of bronchialasthma. With the long course of this disease, you can notice a characteristic boxed sound that arises from the excessive accumulation of air. After all, the motion of the diaphragm is limited. When tapping certain areas of the chest, you can see that the boundaries of the lungs are omitted.
But there are other signs of expiratory dyspnea,which can be noticed by people without medical education. When exhaling, you can hear a slight whistle or a characteristic crunchy sound (crepitation). In some cases, it is even audible from a distance.
Symptoms of diseases
Taking into account the fact that the expiratory dyspnea is a sign of the development of some of the respiratory diseases, it is necessary to understand how the disease should be determined.
For example, if a patient has obstructive bronchitis,then its characteristic feature is not only the development of respiratory failure, but an increase in temperature. In addition, the patient has increased weakness, pale skin, acrocyanosis. Cyanotic skin color manifests itself on the remote parts of the body from the heart: fingers and toes, ear shells, lips, nose tip.
But often such a symptom is a sign that,that asthma began. Dyspnoea expiratory occurs with exacerbation of the disease. In most cases, it begins when you contact the allergen. The disease is seasonal in nature. However, deterioration may occur if inhaled tobacco smoke or other substances with a sharp odor. Sometimes exacerbation of asthma is associated with increased physical exertion. Often seizures begin in the morning or evening hours.
In some cases, it is necessary to conductA special examination to understand the nature of dyspnea. Especially dangerous is its occurrence in childhood. In children, expiratory dyspnea is often observed with obstructive bronchitis. In this case, you need to go to the hospital for help. In a medical institution they can not only accurately establish a diagnosis, but also provide the necessary qualified assistance.
You can find out the nature of dyspnea with the help ofradiography, ECG, ECHO. A study of the gas composition of blood is also shown. The degree of bronchial obstruction can be determined by measuring the vital volume of the lungs or by making pneumotachometry.
If you or a person in your environment suffers fromattacks of asthma, you need to know what can be done before the arrival of doctors. First of all, such a patient must be seated and tried to calm him down. Stress leads to an increase in heart rate and an increase in the consumption of oxygen and a number of nutrients. Because of this, dyspnea expiratory may begin to develop more.
The room in which the patient is locatedattack dyspnoea, should be well ventilated. In addition, attention should be paid to the humidity of the air. If it is excessively dry, it is advisable to put a pot or kettle of water on the fire and open the lid. You can also hang wet towels or sheets.
If the cause of dyspnoea was spasm, thenbronchodilator preparations. People with asthma should always have inhalers on hand. Such patients during seizures should use leukotyrene receptor antagonists, monoclonal antibodies, and cromones. If the patient is not given appropriate therapy, then in the course of time he may have decreased sensitivity to the dilators of the bronchi (substances that relax smooth muscles and increase their lumen). Because of this, the patient may have uncontrolled attacks of dyspnea.
For the removal of spasm can be used suchfunds, such as Salbutamol, Berotek, Ventolin, Metapril, Fenoterol, Berodual, Terbutalin. But each of these medicines has side effects and contraindications. Therefore, the selection of the right drug should be done together with the doctor.
When obstructive bronchitis is also prescribedinhalation, because this disease is characterized by the appearance of expiratory dyspnea. The plan of nursing interventions in this case is to provide bed rest to the patient, limit physical activity and organize the treatment process. The nurse must follow the instructions of the doctor.
In some cases, with airway disease can prevent the development of an attack. For this, it is necessary to follow the recommendations of physicians. They boil down to what is needed:
- refrain from smoking and other bad habits, avoid visiting places where there may be tobacco smoke;
- minimize contact with possible allergens, including household chemicals;
- Carry out hardening, vitamin therapy;
- to reconsider a way of life, to give sufficient time to a high-grade food and rest;
- with the development of bronchitis, use expectorants;
- Use antibiotics when bacterial infection is attached.
Compliance with the recommended preventive measures andrapid initiation of treatment in the event of an attack, contribute to the fact that the patient can control dyspnea. It is also important to remember that expiratory dyspnea occurs in respiratory diseases due to the narrowing of the small bronchi. Symptomatic therapy should be aimed at relaxing the smooth muscles.