Soviet 4th anti-aircraft machine gun
GAZ-AA - a truck of the Gorky Automobile Plant with a lifting capacity of 1.5 tons, the famous lorry. It was produced from 1932 to 1949. The most common Soviet car of the Great Patriotic War, released in the amount of more than 800 thousand units. It was a modified licensed copy of the American truck "Ford" model "AA" sample of 1929.
The GAZ-AA, for all its simplicity, was technically quite sophisticated. The basis was a powerful spar frame, on which the body and the cab were mounted. He had an inline four-cylinder engine of 3.3 liters, developing 42 liters. with. Gorky lorry accounted for more than half of the fleet of the Red Army. Their undoubted advantage was the simplicity of design and unpretentiousness to the quality of fuel. Their main task was to transport troops, for which the usual body was equipped with removable transverse benches.If necessary, the truck could transport an instrument: in the body of the GAZ-AA there was a regimental cannon with a front end and calculation.
One of the ways to use the lorry was to place in its back the quad anti-aircraft installation of the Maxim machine guns.
The turret for the machine-gun plant was manufactured according to the old drawings in the mechanical repair shop of Uralelectromed OJSC and mounted in the back of a GAZ-AA car, restored by the staff of the motor workshop. GAZ-AA car was transferred to the museum by a private collector of vintage cars. Four demilitarized models of the Maxim machine gun were received by the museum of military equipment of the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma in 2010 by order of the commander of the Volga-Urals military district from military unit 96544 (Tyumen Region).
Tactical and technical characteristics
Years of release - 1931-1945
Produced, pcs. - more than 12,000
Calculation, people - 3
Initial speed of a bullet, m / s - 800
Horizontal firing range, m - 1 600
Reach height, m - 1 400
Rate of fire, rds / min - 2 000
Combat rate of fire, rds / min. - 1,200
Capacity of a tape, cartridges - 500
Installation height, mm - 2 300
The angle of vertical fire, hail - from -10 to +82
Angle of horizontal fire, hail - 360
Transfer time from traveling to combat, from -30
In the late 20s and early 30s, the need to increase the density and effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire of the land and sea forces of the Red Army became acute. One of the measures to effectively repel enemy air attacks was the creation of anti-aircraft guns, combining several machine guns. In July 1928, the Tula Arms Plant was entrusted with the design and construction of a twin, build and quad anti-aircraft machine-gun installations based on Maxim machine guns. The best installation was developed by Nikolay Tokarev, the son of the famous gunsmith, the creator of the TT pistol.
Quad machine-gun installation of its design was adopted in 1931. Placing it in the back of the GAZ-AA sharply increased the mobility of the installation and made it possible to directly cover the troops on the front from low-flying aircraft. In all, during the years of the Great Patriotic War, about 4,000 GAZ-AA trucks were converted to accommodate machine guns and artillery anti-aircraft guns in the back.
For the first time in a combat situation, it was used in clashes with the Japanese at Lake Hassan in 1938.In extreme situations, for example, in the defense of Sevastopol, the Maxim fourfold installations on lorries were also used as an effective defensive means against advancing infantry.
The Tokarev installation allowed firing at aircraft flying at altitudes up to 1,400 m at speeds of up to 500 km / h, and at the time of creation had no analogues among foreign systems. By the middle of the war, it became clear that the constant increase in speeds, the increase in security and survivability of aviation does not allow ZPU on the basis of the Maxim machine guns of rifle caliber to effectively deal with enemy combat aircraft.
Nevertheless, despite the fact that, since 1943, the 7.62-mm quadruple ZPU constructions of Tokarev were removed, as outdated, from the anti-aircraft regiments of the anti-aircraft divisions of the GDK, the installations were warmed up in the army until the end of the war.