Technology of Developmental Training
In connection with the intensive technological development of the educational process, the advanced ideas of teaching and upbringing are dressed in the form of technology. One of the universally recognizedtechnology of developmental learning.
The psychological basis of developmental learninghave been substantiated by an outstanding domesticpsychologist L.S. Vygotsky. He first disclosed the priority of development in education and upbringing. Orientation to LS Vygotsky's concept of "zone of proximal development" in training became the basis of many psychological and pedagogical studies, experiments in education.
Followers of the scientist A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Halperin developed a psychological theory of activity in which LS Vygotsky's ideas were further developed. Implementation of developmental education in primary school was undertaken by L.V. Zankov, and later, D.B. Elkonin and V.V. Davydov in the practice of experimental schools.
The ability to develop exists in a person withbirth. Development is due to some hereditary mechanisms, but the social environment is also an essential factor in the formation of the personality. An important property of a person - self-regulation, self-management - affects the process of human development, which takes place in an individual variant. The process of development is characterized by staginess and unevenness. Age changes determine the quantitative and qualitative development opportunities.
In connection with the development of the theory of the developingtraining, it was suggested that the child from preschool age is able to master many common theoretical concepts. In this regard, it is possible to activate mental development through the content of educational material, in which priority is given to raising the theoretical level.
Technology of Developmental Traininginvolves the interaction of the teacher and studentson the basis of collective-distributive activities, the search for various ways of solving learning problems through the organization of an educational dialogue in the research and search activity of students.
Technology of Developmental Trainingincludes stimulating the reflective abilities of the child, teaching skills of self-control and self-esteem.
Technology of Developmental Trainingis based on the concepts of developmental learningRussian scientists (LV Zankov, VV Davydov, DB Elkonin, ZI Kalmykova, EN Kabanova, GA Tsukerman, IS Yakimanskaya, GK Selevko and others) based on various aspects of child development and certain motivational components.
For example, L.V. Zankov, V.V. Davydov, D.B.Elkonin rely in the development of concepts of developmental learning for cognitive interest. Yakimanskaya gives priority to the individual experience of the individual. G. Altshuller, I. Volkov, I. Ivanov focus attention on the creative needs of schoolchildren, and G.K.Selevko - on the needs of self-improvement. In any case, the technologies of developmental learning consider the child as an independent subject of the learning process, interacting with the surrounding world.
In the practice of school education, the most widely spread technologies of developmental training were LV Zankov and DB Elkonin-VV Davydov.
Didactic Principles of Developmental Education L.Zankova:
- A high level of complexity with a rapid pace of learning material.
Theoretical knowledge plays a leading role.
- Facilitate awareness of the learning process.
- General development of all students.
Didactic bases of developing education DB Elkonin-VV Davydova:
- The purpose of teaching is the formation of theoretical thinking and consciousness.
- The content of training is dominated by a system of scientific concepts based on common methods of teaching activities.
- Methodological features - a problematic presentation of the educational material, the use of the method of teaching tasks, the organization of collective-distributive activities.