The most common historical misconceptions
Very often the information that comes to us has nothing to do with the reality and historical events of the past.
About such cases, we read further.
There is no evidence that the Vikings wore horned helmets. Helmets were the most common, covering the upper part of the face and nose - the same as all the soldiers at that time. In fact, the “horned” Vikings are a scenario costume that appeared in 1876 during the production of Richard Wagner’s opera The Ring of the Nibelunks.
According to legend, Marco Polo was the first to bring noodles from China in the 13th century. But for the first time this “duck” was launched by the Macaroni Journal in the 20s of the last century in order to popularize the product in the USA. In his travel notes, Marco Polo actually described something similar to unleavened, lean “Lagana” bread, which he tried in the Middle Kingdom and which is also made from durum flour. In Italy, macaroni was brought by Libyan Arabs back in the 7th century, which means that Marco Polo was certainly familiar with the product that had been eaten in his homeland for 6 centuries in a row.
For some reason, it is believed that in the Middle Ages, people rarely lived to be 30 years old, and at this age they were already considered as deep old men. In fact, this fallacy arose from the fact that the average age of a man of the Middle Ages, which scientists derive, was small due to high infant mortality, whereas if you were lucky enough to go through all the childhood sores and not play in the box, then you could no less than today. For example, the average young man who reached the 20th anniversary in medieval England and who did not die from a pig or who was not killed in battle, lived remarkably well from 64 to 67 years.
Modern historians argue that medieval chastity belts are nothing more than a joke. All known similar devices belong to the 18-19 (and even the early twentieth) centuries and were not used to ensure that wives (or brides) did not walk during the absence of a husband. Their parents wore their teenage children so that they would not masturbate. In those days, it was believed that masturbation leads to insanity.
Marie Antoinette did not say the sacramental phrase “let them eat cakes,” in response to the message that the people do not even have bread.The phrase first appeared in Rousseau's “Confessions” when Marie-Antoinette was only 10 years old, and she actually belonged to Marie-Teresa, wife of Louis XIV. And then, to be precise, Marie-Thérèse uttered “Qu’ils mangent de la brioche” - “Let them eat brioche” (baked flour is more expensive). The fact is that according to the law, if cheap bread ran out, bakers were obliged to sell bread from more expensive flour for the same money (which of course they did not want to do, of course). These words were attributed to Marie-Antoinette after her execution.
George Washington had no wooden teeth. According to anthropologists from the University of Pittsburgh (with the US National Museum and the Smithsonian Museum), the artificial jaw of America’s first president, who lost teeth due to scurvy, was made of gold, ivory, lead and a whole set of real teeth, among which were and human and animal teeth (in particular, horse and donkey).
Antonio Salieri was not jealous of Mozart and had nothing to do with his death. Two great composers worked in completely different musical genres. Meanwhile, historians argue that it is ratherMozart envied the older and much more successful Salieri, who made a decent fortune on his writings, unlike Wolfgang Amadeus. Well, as for the "poisoning" of Mozart Salieri - thanks to Pushkin for that.
The beauty and leader of Argentina, Eva Peron (if you forgot who it is, review the musical of the same name with Madonna in the title role), never uttered the phrase “I will return, and there will be millions of us” attributed to her. In fact, it was said by the leader of the Indian uprising in Bolivia, Tupac Katari in 1781, shortly before his execution. But Ewe Peron attributed this phrase to the poet José Maria Castiñera de Dios in a poem written 10 years after her death. Most likely, he took this phrase not from the unfortunate Indian leader, but from the movie with Spartak by Kirk Douglas.
Napoleon Bonaparte was not short, as it is customary to think about him. Moreover, he was even slightly higher than the average French of those times. At the time of his death, his height was 5.2 French feet, that is, 169 cm. The British launched the shorty chip, having heard this number - 5.2 ”, which in English measures 158 cm. Perhaps also, the legend of the smallness of Napoleon went from his nickname "Little Corporal" (Petit Caporal).
Albert Einstein was not expelled from school for poor performance in mathematics, as is commonly believed. Moreover, Einstein himself said: "I have never failed math ... When I was not yet fifteen, I perfectly mastered the differential and integral calculus." Einstein really failed the exam when he entered the Higher City Polytechnic School in 1895, but not in physics and mathematics, which he passed perfectly, but in philosophy. In addition, we must not forget that as a child prodigy, Einstein, who entered a higher educational institution, was two years younger than other applicants.