The most significant stages in the history of medicine

The most significant stages in the history of medicine

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The history of medicine did not develop gradually. It consists of periods in which events occurred that had a significant impact on the world of medicine as a whole. Each subsequent moment brings us closer to the time when we will all become immortal cyborgs, but until this moment has come, let's go back in time and consider the ten most significant stages in the history of medicine.

Charles-Francois Felix removed the anal fistula to Louis XIV

King Louis XIV of France had serious health problems. He suffered from headaches, gout, periostitis and (as some historians say) diabetes. In 1686, Louis XIV acquired another disease - the anal fistula, which he could not get rid of for a long time. Having tried all the methods (including enemas and poultices), the desperate king decided to seek help from a barber named Charles-Francois Félix.

Charlie-Francois Felix was given six months to think of a way to alleviate the king’s suffering. 75 volunteers from French prisons were to assist him in this.After a few months, Felix created two tools to perform a complex operation - the expander and the scraper.

The operation was successful, and King Louis XIV showered Felix with money and titles. After that, it became fashionable in France to have an anal fistula. The court officials of Louis XIV began to turn to Felix, demanding that he be given the same operation as the king.

Subsequently, it helped legitimize surgery, and doctors began to consider it as a real alternative in the treatment of certain diseases.

Ambroise Pare put an end to pouring wounds with boiling oil

One of the most famous surgeons in history is Frenchman Ambroise Pare. He served at the royal court, and before that he was engaged in military medicine. At that time, getting rid of pain was not considered the first priority of medical professionals, so patients often died right during the operation.

One of the most painful, but necessary procedures was cauterization. To seal the wound, surgeons used boiling oil. But even after such a procedure, the chances of surviving the patient were negligible. In 1536, during the Italian Wars, Ambroise Pare worked as a military surgeon.Once he ran out of boiling oil, with which he treated wounded soldiers, so he had to create tincture from improvised means. It consisted of rose oil, egg yolks and turpentine. Pare did not expect it to be so useful and effective. To his surprise, the soldiers whom he treated with the help of the new tool felt much better the next day.

Ambroise Pare showed the world that there are less painful alternatives to cauterization. In addition, he is known for having popularized dressing after amputation of limbs.

Anatomy of Andreas Vesalius

Medic, surgeon and philosopher Claudius Galen (or just Galen) was one of the greatest scientists of ancient Greece. Galen became famous for his writings on the internal structure of man, which he wrote on the basis of his research on the structure of animals (by dissecting their corpses). Galen lived in the II century AD, so he interpreted many things incorrectly, however, this did not prevent the fact that the concepts he had introduced remained unchanged for many centuries.

In the XVI century, the teachings of Galen were questioned by the Dutch anatomist Andreas Vesalius.In 1543, Vesalius published a paper On the Tissues of the Human Body, in which he pointed out the mistakes made by Claudius Galen.

Andreas Vesalius was one of the first to study the human body through an autopsy, which at that time was prohibited by the church. Fortunately, Vesalius had several influential patrons (including the Spanish king Karl V of Habsburg). This contributed to his book becoming one of the most important anatomical publications of all time.

Ephraim McDowell performed the first ovariotomy

The American doctor Ephraim McDowell became world famous for one special case - or two, if you count the time when he removed stones from his bladder from seventeen-year-old James Nolk Polk, the future president of the United States of America.

On December 13, 1809, McDowell visited Jane Todd Crawford, a woman whom a local doctor said she was pregnant. After examining Crawford, McDowell diagnosed a ten-kilogram ovarian tumor in her. The woman had to be urgently saved.

Jane Todd Crawford had to go through a 25-minute tumor removal procedure without anesthesia.Despite the sad forecast, the woman quickly recovered after the surgery and lived for another 32 years.

Since then, Ephraim McDowell has become known as the "father of ovariotomy."

Richard Lauer performed the first blood transfusion.

In the middle of the seventeenth century, Richard Lauer, an Oxford physician and member of the Royal Society, began to study blood transfusions as a potential treatment.

In 1665, Lauer performed the first successful operation to transfuse blood from one animal to another.

In 1667, he conducted a blood transfusion operation from a sheep to a volunteer named Arthur Koga, who was paid 20 shillings for his services.

The well-known memoirist Samuel Pepys, who was present during this procedure, later wrote that Koga received about 300 milliliters of sheep blood. The results of the experiment were published in the scientific journal Philosophical Works of the Royal Society (Eng. The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society). However, the public did not perceive this event as something surprising and worthy of attention. Lauer was ridiculed and called a mad scientist.

Koga had mental problems, and Lauer mistakenly suggested that a blood transfusion would help him cope with them.When this did not happen, people rejected the idea of ​​a blood transfusion. It took a century to be taken seriously again.

Jean-Dominic Larrey perfected military medicine

Jean-Dominique Larrey is an outstanding innovator in field surgery.

Larrey, having studied all the standard practices of his time, entered the service in the Napoleonic army as a military surgeon. He soon realized that the existing treatment methods were fundamentally wrong and ineffective. For example, for security reasons, military hospitals were always located a few kilometers from the battlefields. This made them completely useless, since most of the wounded soldiers died on the way to them. Larrey decided that military medicine would be more effective if tent hospitals were broken up near the front line. In addition, he wanted to improve the methods of transporting wounded soldiers. This is how the first military ambulances appeared. Larrey also became an expert in limb amputation, having developed techniques that made the procedure faster and safer.

Rhinoplasty Sushruta

Indian physician and writer Susrutu, who lived in the 6th-5th centuries BC, is sometimes called the “father of plastic surgery” because of his teaching about nose correction. He gave a fairly detailed description of how to perform primitive forms of rhinoplasty.

Another contribution of Sushruta to medicine is the Sushruta Samhita, an ancient treatise that became the basis of Ayurveda, the traditional system of Indian medicine used to this day. It describes about one thousand diseases, over a hundred plants, minerals and medicines.

Jean Civial performed the first minimally invasive surgery.

Until the beginning of the XIX century, stones from the kidneys were removed by lithotomy (stone cutting) - a surgical incision was made and the whole stone was removed. This procedure was very painful, many patients could not stand it and died right during it.

Later, the French doctor Jean Sivial invented the lithotripter, which he used to perform the first minimally invasive surgery in the world. With the help of this tool, Civial managed to crush the stone in the patient's kidneys, and then remove it through the urethra.

Jean Sivial, a pioneer in the field of urology and the founder of the first in the world urological center (at the Nicer Hospital in Paris), showed that his method was much more effective than lithotomy.

George Heyvard performed the first amputation under general anesthesia.

Shortly after William Morton invented ethereal anesthesia in 1846 (inhaler "Letheon"), doctors began to look for possible ways to use it. This process was somewhat delayed due to Morton's unwillingness to disclose the active ingredient of his inhaler. After a while, Morton offered to supply Letheon to Boston hospitals free of charge, but the doctors did not agree to this until he said that he used sulfuric ether when creating the inhaler. After the secret was discovered, Dr. George Hayward successfully applied general anesthesia to a leg amputation procedure for a twenty-one-year-old female patient named Alice Mohan, who suffered from tuberculosis.

Ignatz Philip Semmelweis suggested that doctors wash their hands

Hungarian obstetrician Ignaz Philip Zemmelweis realized that there is a direct link between ordinary hand washing and the occurrence of fever in obstetric clinics.Hand washing and processing tools reduced the death rate from postpartum sepsis to one percent. Maternity fever was a fairly common problem in the XIX century. The death rate from it was 18 percent.

Ignaz Philip Semmelweis spent a lot of effort to prove to the medical community that he was right, but to no avail. Ultimately, he went insane and went to a psychiatric hospital, where he was beaten to death by guards.

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  • The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

    The most significant stages in the history of medicine

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