Types of political culture and their principles of their development

Types of political culture and their principles of their development

Political culture is a characteristicthe political life of society, which is historically conditioned. It consists of the level of development of the subject of politics, its activities and its results, the subject of which is examined in the relevant institutions and relations.

If we consider this concept in the narrow sense, then it is a set of political methods and actions that are characteristic of a particular state and are accepted by all its citizens.

The structure of political culture consists ofa certain number of components that are interrelated with each other. Here are some of them: value-normative, cognitive, evaluative, behavioral and adjusting. However, apart from the components, certain levels of political culture also stand out:

  1. World outlook. This is a definite idea of ​​the principles of political activity and various aspects.

  2. Civil. The allocation of their own political status, which will correspond to existing opportunities.

  3. Political. Formation of their attitude to the political regime, to opponents and allies.

There are certain types of political culture, singled out on the basis of citizens' ideas about it:

  1. Democratic political culture. The state in this case acts as an instrument for realizing the will of the people. The basis of this kind of culture is the idea of ​​the sovereignty of the people and the belief that the protest arising in case of disagreement with the principles of political power will have an effect.

  2. Authoritarian. Here the state, regardless of the way it is created, is viewed by citizens as a force whose decisions must be strictly obeyed.

  3. Revolutionary. All types of political culture somehow characterize citizens' behavior toward the authorities, if they are dissatisfied with it. This kind of demonstrates the essence of the protest, which consists in the cardinal change of the existing state system. And it is believed that the degree of radicalism of the revolution is directly proportional to its sequence, i.e. the more drastic the measures taken, the better the result.

  4. Messianic. Its essence lies in the fact that citizens are confident in the highest mission of the state, in that it must fulfill some mission. Note that this species exists in its pure form for relatively short periods, but in its latent form can complement many types of political culture.

  5. Patriarchal. At the heart of this kind are the relations of citizens and authorities, which can be compared with the relations of the father and children. Political freedom in this case is absent, and its restriction is akin to the childish prohibitions that exist in the traditional patriarchal family. This species is characterized by stability, but only until the "father" is alive.

American political scientists S. Verba and G. Almond singled out such types of political culture:

  1. Patriarchal. It is inherent only in a society where the political system is not yet formed.

  2. Subject. Characterized by the existence of specialized political institutions, which are guided by members of society. At the same time, they can show different emotions: pride, dislike, discontent, perceiving their existence and activities as legitimate and illegal.

  3. Activist, or culture of political participation. Members of a society can not only form their demands for political power, but they are given the right to take direct part in it.

American political scientists argue that none of these types can not exist in pure form. They interact with each other and form species in which one or another component dominates.

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