What are the normal indicators of the female hormone estradiol?
In the human body, estradiol is produced in the organs of the endocrine system - in women, these are the adrenal glands, the ovaries and, to some extent, the placenta. In men, the hormone in a small amount is produced in the testes, but its content may increase significantly with the modification of testosterone.
If the estradiol content in women is lower than normal, it can manifest itself in rare and irregular menstruation, as well as problems in conceiving and reducing breast size.
For the male, it threatens to brittle bones,increased risk of cardiovascular disease, infertility and fatigue during exercise.
But the level of the hormone above the norm is also not a good indicator. For women, this can result in a failure of the menstrual cycle, rapid weight gain and diseases of various organs. In men, it is still more serious - under the influence of estradiol, their body loses its main features - the body acquires feminine outlines, the production of testosterone is inhibited, sexual desire decreases.
How to set the norm?
Such serious consequences of hormonal imbalance in both women and men make you think about regular examinations. At the same time, it is necessary to know what is the norm of estradiol in certain circumstances.
For representatives of the "stronger sex" everything is very simple - a blood test should show a value at the level of 40-161 pmol per liter. If this parameter is higher or lower, this is a serious reason to visit an endocrinologist, because a deviation from the norm can be caused by serious diseases, including prostatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and others.
In women, everything is much more complicated - the content of the hormone varies depending on many factors:
- Ovulation. Since estradiol regulates the production of luteinizing hormone, which gives rise to ovulation, its content increases significantly on the 7th - 10th day of the menstrual cycle.
- Pregnancy. At the same time, there is also a very significant increase in the level of the substance in the blood - an increase in the indicator is noticeable already at week 3
- Pre-climatic period. Estradiol is produced in smaller quantities after 35 years - a regularly performed blood test will show its decline to its minimum level by 60 years.
- Climax. When it is its content is also very small, which can lead to an imbalance in the development of the body, accompanied by accelerated aging and the occurrence of diseases.
Deviations from the norm can occur in many cases. Thus, the cause of estradiol in the body below normal, in addition to the age of over 35, may be smoking and unbalanced diet containing little fat. This is especially pronounced during pregnancy.
In addition, the decrease is associated with diseases of the genital organs - in particular, inflammation of the ovaries.It is diagnosed quite simply - in this case, the analysis does not show changes in hormonal levels at 5-7 days of the menstrual cycle.
A higher than natural rate may be a consequence of taking hormonal contraceptive drugs, as well as tumors and other diseases.
The minimum value of estradiol in women is achieved in the menstruation phase. Then, on the 3rd or 4th day of the cycle, the follicular phase begins when the index increases. This is a consequence of the preparation of the body for ovulation - the release of the egg from the follicle.
|Phases of the menstrual cycle||Normal Estradiol Values|
|Menstruation||91-861 pmol / l|
|Follicular phase (3-4 dm.ts.)||68-1269 pmol / l|
|Ovulation (7-10 dm.ts.)||131-1655 pmol / l|
After 7-10 days comes the next stage - the phase of ovulation, which lasts 2-3 days. During this period, estradiol is produced with very high intensity.
After it ends, menstruation begins again, which lasts 5-7 days, and the estradiol level drops to a minimum.
In pregnancy, the rate of hormone increases every week.
As mentioned above, the growth of estradiol can already occur from 2-4 weeks, when there is an excess of the usual rate of 2-3 times. Further, every week of pregnancy, an increase in the norm by 1100-1300 pmol / l occurs. 2-3 weeks before delivery, the analysis shows a record figure of 50,000-10000 pmol / l. But already on the 4th or 5th day after the completion of the pregnancy, the indicator begins to fall to its usual value - this process takes from 7 days to a month.
But if your performance is lower or higher than regulatory - do not rush to prescribe yourself a treatment yourself - it is possible that the estradiol level is changed as a result of a short burst of testosterone or other factors - for example, age changes after 35 years. The final conclusions should form only a doctor.
The ratio of female and male hormones
Speaking about the balance of two hormones, one should also mention the importance that their relationship has. Normal for women is the case when estradiol is 10 times higher than the level of testosterone in the blood.In certain circumstances, this ratio may decrease to 1 to 7 or 1 to 5 - this is also normal, but if there is no improvement during the re-examination, you need to contact an endocrinologist.
A dangerous signal is the situation when the content of testosterone is only 2-4 times lower than estradiol. This can lead to a general hormonal imbalance, impaired development of the body and infertility. But after 35 years, the rate of estradiol in women is reduced, and this picture may be evidence of an approach to menopause.
Imbalance can also be caused by menstrual disorders not related to hormones - if estradiol is not released on the 5th day of the cycle, the blood test will show its insufficient level, since testosterone production may become higher.
Despite this, a decrease in the ratio to 1 to 4-5 is a reason for a visit to the doctor even at the age of over 35 years or the absence of menstruation on the desired day of the cycle.