What is a French horn? Getting acquainted with wind instruments
In this article you will learn about what a French horn is. This instrument is actively used in symphonic and brass bands.
What is a French horn? It is a copper brass mouthpiece that sounds in the tenor register. The word "horn" goes back to the German Waldohom, which means "forest horn". The instrument really originated from the hunting horn and entered the orchestra in the middle of the 18th century. Until the 1930s, the French horn had no additional gates and was a natural instrument with a limited scale. Even Beethoven used the so-called "natural" horn. Later, through various adaptations, it was significantly improved.
The appearance of the tool will helpto understand what the French horn is. It is a metal tube about twelve pounds in length. The instrument has a tip in the shape of a mouthpiece and three special valves. The musician changes the sound of the French horn, vibrating his lips on the mouthpiece and moving the valves with his left hand. His right hand is usually placed in the bell of the instrument to give the timbre additional colors and shades.
Features of sound
What is a French horn today? It is actively used in the wind and symphony orchestras, as well as a solo and ensemble instrument. The horn is usually used in the Fa (in F), in the wind orchestra - in the E-flat (in Es). The range of the wind instrument is all the sounds of the chromatic scale from "si" to the "octave" of the second octave. The French horn is bright and bright on the forte, melodious and soft on the piano, in the lower register a little rough. The instrument conveys a solemn and sad mood.
Playing the French horn, it is good to extract long notes(including at the organ point) and melodies for wide breathing. At the same time, the volume of the consumed air is relatively small. French horn, a photograph of which you can see in this article, is very suitable for the performance of symphonic works.
Techniques for changing sound
The sound of the French horn can be changed using specialreceptions. To make the instrument produce "closed" sounds, its socket is closed by hand. In this position, quiet sounds acquire a gentle and muffled timbre, while loud ones become hoarse and growling. To extract from the instrument "stuck" sounds in the bell of the horn, a fist like a pear is introduced. From this the sound rises by a half, the sounds on the piano become tense and alarming and ringing, at the forte - they acquire a growling, hoarse timbre. Both methods were used in the old days to give the "natural" French horn of chromaticity. If you play the instrument with a bell to the top, it will make the horn sound more loud and give the music a pathetic character.
Works for French horn
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wrote four concertsfor French horn. In addition, special works for her were written by Rheingold Glier and Richard Strauss. In Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, in concert for piano and orchestra No. 1, in the first bars you can hear a French horn. The second part of the fifth symphony of the great composer is practically a solo on this wind instrument. In the first symphony of Gustav Mahler (in the first part of it, from the 32nd bar) also a horn instrument sounds.
Famous French hornists
The art of playing the French horn at different timesfamous musicians such as Austrian Josef Ignaz Leitgeb, Brain Dennis from Britain, Baumann Herman and Peter Damm from Germany, Baborak Radek from the Czech Republic. Talented horn players were Russians: Usov Anton Ivanovich, Buyanovsky Mikhail Nikolayevich and his son Buyanovsky Vitaliy Mikhailovich, Polekh Valery Vladimirovich and Demin Anatoly Sergeevich. These great performers knew what the French horn is, what magnificent works can be performed on it.