What is classicism?
The term "classicism" is applicable practically toall kinds of art. It is found in architecture, in music, in literature, in painting. Therefore, the question of what is classicism, we will respond depending on what kind of art is meant. If to speak in general, what is classicism - the definition in this case will be the following: it is an artistic style or system that dominated Europe for two centuries - from the XVII to the XIX century. In fact - this is a whole era. And now let's talk classicism through the prism of certain types of art.
What is Classicism in Literature
Literary classicism originates from ideasEnlightenment, which prevailed in Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries. In works written in the spirit of classicism, the reader will find the praise of freedom, calls for liberation from religious tyranny and oppression of absolute monarchy. Writers of the era of classicism in their writings expressed a hope for the formation of a new society that will live by other laws - the laws of equality and justice, and members of this society will be kinder and lenient towards each other. As for the structure of the classical work, first of all, it must observe the so-called principle of three oneness: the unity of action, the unity of place and the unity of time. This means that there should be one storyline in action, one must occur in a certain place, and the work must necessarily unfold in time strictly sequentially. With regard to specific time frames, then ideally the action of a play or novel, written in the spirit of classicism, should unfold in one day. Of the Western authors, whose works are attributed to this style, we will single out Corneille, Racine, Lafontaine, Moliere, Boileau, Voltaire, Samuel Johnson, Boswell and Gibbon. In Russia, the most outstanding representatives of classicism were such outstanding writers as AP Sumarokov, DI Fonvizin, MV Lomonosov, GR Derzhavin and AD Kantemir.
What is Classicism in Music?
First of all, let's distinguish such concepts,as "classical music" and "music of classicism." Under classical music, art critics and all educated people understand such musical works that have passed the test of time. In this sense, a fairly large number of composers - from the Middle Ages to the 20th century (in Russia, for example, DD Shostakovich, SS Prokofiev, SV Rakhmaninov, abroad - Sh. M.Vidor, M.Dyupre, G.Gershwin, D.Ellington). As for the music of classicism, it can be attributed to the music of European composers of the mid-18th - mid-19th centuries. - these terms are, of course, very conditional. But more than real people who created in the spirit of musical classicism. This is, above all, such outstanding composers as Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, who in music circles are often called "Viennese classics". It was they who determined the further development of music for many years to come. It was their ideas that were subsequently used by many famous composers who wrote music in a more modern romantic style.
Classicism in architecture
Monumentality, severity, simplicity, logicalthe built structure and harmony - with the help of these words it is possible to characterize the architectural constructions bearing the stamp of classicism. This style leads its history from ancient times, more precisely - since antiquity. At that time, they built this way. Architectural classicism came to Europe to replace the pretentious style of baroque. In Russia, classicism flourished in full in the middle of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The most striking European monuments of the era of classicism are, in fact, entire cities - St. Petersburg, Helsinki and Warsaw.