What is HPV in women and how to treat it
Of all 120 types of microorganisms, more than 40 can be sexually transmitted. Microorganisms that can cause cervical cancer or dysplasia are mainly “acquired” during unprotected sex. It is possible infection during anal and / or vaginal sex, in case of contact of the genitals with secretions of the infected. The least “dangerous” is oral sex. However, even through a kiss, in some cases, infection is also possible, which will be accompanied by rashes in the throat and mouth.
Human infection with this virus in a household way is completely excluded.
Types and Values of HPV
We have already examined the causes of HPV in women.Now we will get acquainted with pathogens, and with what dangers they bring with them to the female body. How they look can be seen in the photo. Among the 120 known pathoorganisms, only 70 are properly studied. Considering that HPVs cause cancer, they are divided into high and low oncogenic risk viruses:
- Microorganisms of high oncogenic risk - numbers 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51,52, 56, 58, 59, 68.
- Microorganisms of low oncogenic risk - numbers 6, 11, 42, 43, 44.
It is also worth noting that among the 70 representatives of the pathogenic microflora studied there are also such viruses that cannot cause cancer, they pass under the numbers 1-5, 10, 27, 53-55, 62, 67.
HPV and related diseases
Different types of viruses provoke various kinds of diseases.However, for women, HPV infection occurs in most cases unnoticed, due to the excellent performance of the immune system. In 90% of cases, HPV disappears from the body independently, if not for several months, then after several years.
Considering the statistics, only 50% of women whose body has infected the human papillomavirus will see changes in the cervix after three years: dysplasia 2 or 3 degrees (see photo). However, only 20% of those infected will suffer from cervical cancer.
Symptoms of HPV
The exact symptoms in this case can not be called. The incubation period will also depend on the type of virus and many other factors. In particular, infection with type 6 and 11 viruses provokes the appearance of genital warts. The process of their formation from the moment of infection with viruses can be 3 weeks or 8 months. For the development of cervical cancer when infected with pathogens 16, 18 and 31, it can take from 10 to 20 years.
Despite the fact that infected women have the human papilloma virus in the body does not manifest itself, there are some symptoms that can indicate the presence of pathogenic microflora, namely, the appearance for no apparent reason or after sex vaginal discharge.
Due to the fact that the symptoms of HPV infection are almost absent, there are a number of methods for diagnosing this disease. Every woman who has reached the age of 30 years should be tested for HPV every 3-5 years.
The so-called hybrid capture method or Digene HPV test (in the photo), the essence of which is to analyze the DNA of this microorganism, is widely used. Today it is new and more effective. For the test, it is necessary to take scraping from the cervix or its canal.
An equally important role is played by a smear for cytological analysis. If a pathoorganism with a high oncogenic risk or suspicious changes in cytology of the smear is detected, additional examination may be required:
- colposcopy (see photo);
- biopsy of the cervix.
Under the first option you need to understand the study using a special apparatus of the cervix. Without going into details, we can say that it works as a specific magnifying glass. In the second case we are talking about the removal of some biological material from different parts of the cervix for further examination under a microscope.
The frequency of testing for HPV
In order to seek medical help and begin treating any disease, symptoms are necessary. However, the human papillomavirus does not show its presence in the body until the moment when treatment may no longer be required at all, or it will be extremely difficult.
For women younger than 30-31
If analyzes have confirmed the absence of a high risk of HPV, then the next examination can be carried out after 3-5 years. With positive tests for high risk of HPV, when a cytological smear is normal, the next examination should be carried out after 9 months or after a year.
If tests for high-risk human papillomavirus have given a positive result and do not coincide with the rate of a smear for cytology, then further diagnosis will be required, which was discussed above. Based on the results of the examination, the appropriate treatment will be prescribed by the doctor.
For women over 31 years old
The disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Particularly dangerous diseases whose symptoms are practically absent. Therefore, women who are over 31 years old need HPV screening. In the case of negative test results and a normal cytological smear, the next examination should be performed only after five years.
In case of positive test results on HPV, colposcopy and cervical biopsy will be required. The totality of the data obtained will indicate a possible treatment or will allow to provide relevant recommendations.
Women over 65
Despite the causes of infection by the microorganism, at this age, with the negative results of the first two tests for the presence of high-risk HPV and the same for cytology, further examinations can be avoided, since the risk of cancer is negligible.
Nowadays, to reduce the negative impact of human papillomavirus, there are special vaccinations - Cervarix and Gardasil. It is worth noting that they are effective against microorganisms of such types as 6, 11, 16, 18, but are powerless against type 31.
Treatment Methods for HPV
If the symptoms of the disease do not manifest themselves, and tests show that the human papillomavirus, especially type 31, is present in the body, treatment should be prompt. However, before the doctor begins to treat, you will have to undergo some additional examinations:
- pass repeated strokes;
- undergo colposcopy;
- examine the cervical mucosa.
It is already known that in the case of ingestion of HPV, especially type 31, specific proteins are actively synthesized, which disrupt the regulation of cell growth, causing excessive proliferation of the cervical tissue of the uterus.In this case, the treatment will consist of a surgical intervention: laser or cryotherapy.