What is the level and how to apply it?
Among the basic quality assessment criteriaconstruction work can be noted the correctness in the arrangement of planes and slopes. Even the quality of materials and methods of attachment do not always guarantee a sufficient margin of reliability and strength of the object, if the position of the element or structure was initially incorrectly calculated. To exclude such flaws, specialists use levels. With the help of this tool, the builder can determine the distance, perform the correct marking, calculate the correct angle of inclination, etc. To understand what leveling is and how to use it, you should familiarize yourself with its device, the principle of operation and varieties. Today, this device is mandatory in the arsenal of not only professional engineers and installers, but often in the economy of ordinary citizens who independently perform repair operations or work on the ground.
What is the level?
If you strictly approach the positioning of thistool, it will rather belong to the sphere of geodesy. But, since today measurement tasks are in demand in a huge spectrum of different areas, it is advisable to consider in a broader sense the concept of what leveling is. The definition can be the following: it is a device designed to determine the difference in altitude between several large and small cells on the surface relative to the conditional level. From the structural point of view, most devices of this type assume the presence of two basic elements - a crossbar with a level and an inclination compensator. To correct the pipe in the structure, an elevator screw is also provided. With his help, the expert aligns the position of the survey horizontally. The simplest cylindrical models usually have compact dimensions, which makes them convenient for measuring.
Although the paramount role is played by the leveling in the workgeodesists, the range of options for its use goes far beyond the scope of not only design, but also construction in general. However, to begin with it is necessary to be defined with that, what such level in building? It begins to be used from the initial stage of the study of the area under the construction of the object. Further marking is carried out for the foundation, bearing walls, laying of communication systems, etc.
In the hands of ordinary users, the leveling tool will also helpthe process of finishing works, where accuracy is already important from an aesthetic point of view. If we talk about what is the level in other areas, then the furniture industry and other types of industry will come to the fore, where accurate calculation of the assembly of parts and structures is important.
Difference from the level
Level and level in the understanding of the majorityinhabitants are an identical tool. Moreover, even builders sometimes call these terms one and the same device. There is no gross error in this, since, in fact, these tools work according to similar principles and solve approximately the same tasks. And yet, for a clearer idea of these adaptations, it is necessary to determine what is the difference in the level?
A leveling device, for example, is a device that is capable ofWork with a single point of support, rotating around the rest of the circle. In turn, the action of the level extends only to two points, between which the required horizontal is laid. Again, strict distinction in these devices is not necessary, since they both can be used to solve similar problems, but when working on different in scale and complexity objects.
Such models of levels are supplied with lenses, inwhich lenses have a large potential for magnification, as well as a scale with grades in degrees. They are often used in measurements of altitude swings and slopes in an open area. On the question of what an optical level is in its structure, it is difficult to give an unambiguous answer, since there are several designs of this type. As a rule, two categories are divided: precise and high-precision. The first includes a technical level, which has a pipe with a direct image. Conversely, high-precision devices are distinguished by the ability to provide and return "pictures", which allows them to produce the best measurement results. Regardless of the internal device, optical models have a metal casing, reliable protection against mechanical damage, as well as insulation from particles of dust, water and other foreign bodies.
The operation of such devices is based on the possibilitybeam projection. Based on the position of the latter, builders quickly and accurately determine the height and make up the layout. For a more complete idea of what a laser level is, one should note its differences from optical analogs. The main difference is the absence of the telescope, which makes it easier to set up the instrument. Actually, ease in working with such models has made them the most popular kind of level among non-specialists. Marking can be easily applied to ceilings and walls, with the same accuracy both indoors and out. It is these devices that show the greatest efficiency when working with finishing - for example, in wallpapering, tiling and in other operations. Usually laser instruments have two beam directions: vertically and horizontally. Also there are devices that project a vertical and inclined lines.
Manual and automatic models
This classification is based on the typealigning devices - it can be automatic or manual. So, to begin with, you have to deal with the question: automatic leveling - what is it? The photo below shows an example of such a model. This option is also called self-leveling, since it determines the optimal position of the tripod, regardless of the characteristics of the surface on which the device is mounted.
Manual models in this sense are less convenient, sincethey must be corrected by the user himself. To simplify the task, experts recommend buying electronic modifications with the presence of compensators. But it is important to consider that the cost of such versions is higher than the usual levels. To work indoors, their technical merits may be superfluous, but on the open ground it is recommended that such levels are recommended.
Rules of operation
The greatest difficulties are caused by opticaldevices, and with laser analogs can even handle a beginner in construction. The work begins with the adjustment of the device. It should clearly show an image on which you can distinguish the smallest details. To understand the intricacies of tuning, you need to remember what leveling is and how it works. In the equipment it has an optical tube, an eyepiece and adjustment elements - by them and should direct the device to the working area. The main thing is that the scale, which can be seen in the pipe, was clearly distinguishable. When the level is correctly set and clearly configured, you must point it at the scale of the working rail. The mark, where the lines intersect in the eyepiece and on the rail, in this case should be fixed to the eye and logged. On the basis of this information, it is possible to decide whether alignment of the soil is required in this area.
How to check the tool for accuracy?
Any measuring equipment periodicallyneeds to be checked for errors. This is especially true for levels, since the conditions of their operation are often associated with various mechanical influences. To maintain the reliability of the instrument, it is necessary to have an idea of what is a calibration of the level for accuracy? This procedure should be carried out on a piece of land with a solid foundation, which is fenced with walls on opposite sides. First the tripod is installed near one of these walls. This establishes the first point on the given axis. Then the device turns on the second wall and a second point is set with a rotation of 180 degrees. Then the level is moved to the second wall and similar measurements are performed - the device is aimed at the second marked point with the beam. As a result, the difference in the measurements between the first and third points will be an error. By the way, the permissible deviation parameter is within 3 mm.
Level, as a measurement tool in the designand construction, has appeared for a long time and for all the time of its existence has experienced many structural upgrades. Moreover, it is in recent years that the most versions of this device have been manufactured, among them digital models intended for professional use. By the way, as the complexity of its construction, the construction level becomes more accessible to ordinary users. This is confirmed by an example of a laser device, which can be handled by one layman without outside help. However, the complexity of the technical part and the increase in functionality cause a wide variety of models. One way or another, to build on the choice of level follows from the tasks facing it. For example, to work indoors during finishing it is advisable to use the usual level, but if you want to use the device on an uneven area of a large area, it is desirable to stop choosing one of the modern laser versions.