What is TRIZ?
What is TRIZ?
- Let us take an example from life. We all use irons, someone has a modern iron with a good thermoregulator and with steam, and someone has a regular Soviet iron. Whatever your iron, you may have this situation: You left for work, and after half an hour you begin to be tormented by vague doubts, panic-turning off the iron? Well, if the children are at home, they can call and ask to turn off the iron. And if there is no one at home? How to get rid of anxiety about not turning off the iron? Let's try on this example to consider an example of using the remarkable invention of Henry Saulovich Altshuller of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). Summarizing the results of a scrupulous analysis of thousands of inventions from the patent fund, G. Altshuller made an astonishing conclusion that all existing inventions can be reduced to using a number of common techniques and methods. Having studied these methods, the owner of an engineering education, who knows how to use the library and the Internet, gets a good chance to become an inventor and even earn money on it.
In essence, TRIZ is a set of algorithms and a large (but limited) list of various inventive techniques.
In the general case, the solution of the problem splits into four stages.
1. Diagnostics. Study the problem and identify the deficiencies that need to be addressed.
2. Reduction. Drawing up a model of contradiction, conflict.
3. Transformation. The choice of the method for solving the problem and its immediate solution.
4. Verification. Verification of the solution of the problem for correctness and optimality.
In the case of an iron:
1. It is necessary to reduce the risk of fire from the iron.
2. We find a contradiction. The iron must be switched on so that it can be used for its intended purpose and the iron must be turned off to avoid a fire.
3. It is necessary to resolve the contradiction obtained in the third step. To do this, you can separate the requirements in time. That is, the iron is turned on when they are ironed. And the iron is off when they are not ironed. And let this whole scheme look a bit ridiculous and banal. Just an example of this everyday. When solving more complicated problems with the help of TRIZ, it will no longer be laughable. I, as an engineer, can suggest to integrate a time relay into the iron circuit, which forcibly turns it off after 10 minutes after turning on the iron, and the simplest sensor that again starts the time relay with any iron shake. Here we used the method of introducing feedback.
4. Thus, we have obtained a solution that is quite complicated in technical terms, but which allows us to cope with the task at hand. This solution involves changing the design of the iron at the factory and is an expensive solution.
Somewhere I read a semi-anecdotal situation about how a good psychologist saved a woman from constant anxiety for an unplugged iron. He recommended that she take the iron with her when she goes to work! Then, it is only an alarm to appear in the shower, you can look into the bag and see the iron turned off. Brilliantly!
- Approximately since the middle of the 40-ies in America and Europe, there are publications about several methods of solving creative problems: Synectics, Brainstorm, Focal Objects Method, Morphological Analysis. They are based on the principle of activating nomination and enumeration of options. Osborne, Zwicky, Gordon first proved in practice the possibility - albeit within limited limits - to control the creative process. According to the myth of irresistible insight, the first blows were dealt. Unfortunately, the activation methods have saved countless trials and errors. This predetermined their defeat in solving problems at the cost of hundreds and thousands of samples. In the future, they did not develop and remained within the framework of the original formulas. Also, an attempt to unite them failed.
Heinrich Saulovich Altshuller was working on the problem of the birth and development of fruitful ideas in Russia.
At that time, he formed and grew strong conviction that the inventors, even the strongest, are working ineffective method of numerous trials and grievous mistakes. Many inventions, discoveries, ideas are late, at least for several years. And, consequently, it is futile to disclose and use such "secrets of creativity" ...
GS Altshuller began to build a fundamentally new "method of invention", based on objective laws of the development of technical, artistic, scientific and other systems. The first publication on the Theory of Solving Inventive Problems (TRIZ) appeared in the journal "Questions of Psychology" in 1956. From this point on, books and articles can be traced to its development.
"RECEPTIONS" is historically the first form of TRIZ. This is quite specific recommendations like "Make the reverse":
a) instead of the action dictated by the conditions of the task, to carry out the opposite effect;
b) make the moving part of the object or the external environment fixed, and the stationary one - moving;
c) rotate the object "upside down", turn it out. More than forty were revealed.
The next step was a summary table of receptions, which gives an idea of when this or that method is used and what contradiction is allowed. That is, the situation is determined in which there is an inventive, and any creative, task. As it turned out, at that moment there are opposite demands either to the system as a whole or to its part. For example: to move, while remaining motionless; show the exclusivity of the standard product, cleanliness when working in "not sterile" conditions, etc. ... When resolving a contradiction, the system gets the opportunities for further development, in contrast to the compromise, when "here and now" becomes slightly better, but for improvement it is necessary to pay for any deterioration in other parameters.
A more developed form of TRIZ recommendations is "STANDARDS". Now they know 76, pass a few more tests. As a rule, the standard is a conglomerate, a combination of techniques, geometric, physical, chemical and other effects, as well as the laws of development of various systems. Standards are more complete than receptions, reflect the logic of development (in particular, technical systems).