Who created the first working computer?
The computer is now no surprise. The usual home appliance, like a TV or phone. Apparently, in a few years these three devices will merge into one. That will be the joy of my beloved niece Natalie! Now she has a hard time. It is not easy at the same time to correspond with friends on Facebook, talk with other friends on the mobile phone and look at the TV screen.
When I once told her that in my time computers were the size of a room, in a pinch, with a desk, she looked at me incredulously. I suspect that she secretly believes: the first computer was created by the great Steve Jobs. Created from the dust of the earth, breathed life into it and ordered: "Be fruitful and multiply."
The name of Steve Jobs (1955–2011) is known to almost everyone. The names of other people who made no less for computerizing the world are almost unknown to the general public. In the summer, together with my niece, we watched the opening of the Olympiad in London. The British demonstrated their country's contribution to world civilization.When the inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, appeared on the scene, my niece asked who the man was. “Inventor of the Internet,” I replied to her and read surprise in her eyes. Is the Internet (in the form to which it is accustomed to) someone invented and invented more recently?
Yes, my dear Natalie, I remember how the Earth was formless and empty, because there was no Internet on it. I will say more, only sixty years ago was born the great-great-grandfather of your laptop. He was born in Germany, and he had the strange name Z-1. By the name of the creator, Konrad Zuse (Konrad Zuse) (1910-1995).
Konrad Tsuse "fell ill" with his invention in childhood. His first invention, the coin changer, he invented when he was a schoolboy. The idea of creating an automatic calculator working on a given program came to Zuse when he was studying at the Berlin Higher Technical School in Charlottenburg. I think that many who studied at a technical school and were engaged in numerous calculations, the idea of facilitating their work visited more than once.
In 1973, my classmate Vitya Bandurkin even bought a commissioning calculator, Felix, for his own money for commissioning.Electronic calculators have not yet been, although electronic computers already existed. Largely due to the dedication and hard work of Konrad Zuse.
At the end of the course in 1935, he became an engineer at the Henschel Aviation Enterprise, which was located in the Berlin suburb of Schönefelde. Here a young engineer was filled up with aerodynamic calculations. The more reinforced in the thought of the need to create an automatic calculator. After working at the factory for only a year, Conrad resigned in order to start designing his dream car. In 1938, the first computer was built. In fact, it was everything that makes a computer a computer.
Zuse decided to perform calculations in the binary system, thanks to which it became possible to use as a simple computing element not a gear with ten teeth, as in an adding machine, but a mechanical switch having only two positions: on and off. It was more simple, and therefore more reliable.
Zuse's computer had a separate memory block and a panel from which data was entered. Data was also entered from punched tape, which served as a 35-mm film.Zuse personally punched holes in it. This unit weighed 500 kilograms, and one multiplication operation produced in five seconds. Slightly faster than man!
The main achievement could be considered that the Z-1 worked. Unreliable, but worked!
In 1939, World War II began and Zuse was mobilized into the army. True, he served for several months, after which he was able to convince the military authorities of the need to create computers for automatic calculations in aerodynamics, aircraft construction and artillery. In the same year, he manufactured the second model of his computing device, the Z-2. It can be considered a working prototype of a computer. The element base of the Z-2 was several thousand telephone relays.
The first fully functional programmable computer was the next model, the Z-3. Tsuze demonstrated it in Berlin on May 12, 1941. It was a success, it was a breakthrough! Similar American cars, the Mark I and ENIAC, appeared only three years later. But the programmable computer to anyone in the warring Germany was not needed. Zuse was able to adapt his invention for making calculations at the Henschel company, but when he spoke aboutthat if instead of a relay to use electronic lamps, the speed of calculations will seriously increase, nobody is interested. Things at the front were such that one had to hope only for some kind of miracle weapon. Which, fortunately for humanity, Germany did not have.
Computer Z-3 was destroyed during the bombing in 1944. Indefatigable Zuse set about creating the fourth model. He counted on the serial
production, but the war was nearing its end, the Allies bombed Germany ruthlessly, and the half-finished Z-4 had to be taken to the small Bavarian town of Hinterstein and hidden in a barn.
In 1948, the computer Z-4 was finally built. Note, on personal funds KTsuse. To save many of its metal parts were made from American cans, which then in Germany were many. On this computer, finally, there was a buyer - the Higher Technical School in Zurich. Z-4 was one of the few computers that existed in the world at that time and the first computer in the world that managed to be sold. He worked in Zurich until 1954, and then another five years in France. Long-Liver!
Now it is not even believed that in the early 1950s only two computers worked in Europe.One of them was the Z-4 of Konrad Zuze, and the other was the MESM, created in the USSR by Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev (1902–1974).