Why is the city of Togliatti so called?
Here are the times! Well, who does not know the city of Tolyatti. This is a city in the Samara region, a major center of the automotive and chemical industries. Virtually any AvtoVAZ vehicle is associated with Togliatti. Especially in terms of population Togliatti ranks 19th in Russia.
But you know, for example, why this city is so called? A resident of Togliatti most likely everyone knows, and you?
Originally, the city was called Stavropol and was founded in 1737 by Vasily Tatishchev as the fortress city of Stavropol to protect the Russian lands from the raids of nomads and the relocation of baptized Kalmyks. On June 20, 1737, Empress Anna Ioannovna complained about the baptism of the Kalmyk princess Anna Tayshina, in which the founding of the city was recorded. From this date, the countdown of the history of the city.
By the early 1950s, the city had 12 thousand inhabitants.
On August 21, 1950, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the construction of a hydroelectric complex on the Volga River was published. During the construction of the Zhiguli HPPStavropol got into the flooded area of the Kuibyshev reservoir and in 1953-1955 it was almost completely transferred to a new place. After that, the rapid growth of the city began.
On August 28, 1964, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decided: to rename the city of Stavropol of the Kuybyshev region to the city of Tolyatti in honor of the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Italy, Palmiro Tolyatti.
Under the administration of Tolyatti, the Communist Party of Italy became the largest party in Italy and the largest non-ruling Communist party in Europe. Although not part of the government, the party was in power in many municipalities and had great influence in society. His deputies were Luigi Longo and Pietro Secchia. Tolyatti has always advocated friendship with the Soviet Union.
The last visit of the Secretary General of the Italian Communist Party (IKP), Palmiro Togliatti, began just as badly as it ended. August 11, 1964, he and his wife flew to Moscow. Formally, he accepted the invitation of the leadership of the CPSU to rest and chat with the heads of other communist parties. In fact, Tolyatti carried out the most important mission - the leadership of the IKP instructed his general secretary to meet with Khrushchev to solve urgent problems.For several years, senior functionaries of the ICP did not have access to the body of "dear Nikita Sergeevich." Every year they were invited to the Crimea, warmly welcomed, diligently treated, presented with valuable gifts, but were not invited to negotiate with members of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee.
The deputy head of the department of the Central Committee of the CPSU, who in the early 60s was appointed senior reception of the Italian party delegation, told me that he presented to all its members a brotherly gift - a gold watch. The Italians looked at him sadly and instead of the words of warm thanks expected, they said: “Again a gold watch. And we so wanted to talk to Comrade Khrushchev.”
The arrival of the General Secretary of the ICP in Moscow was immediately overshadowed by an annoying incident. There was not a single press photographer among those who met, which immediately reduced the level of his visit to an ordinary vacation trip. Tolyatti made it clear that Khrushchev was not going to accept him either. Actually, Comrade Palmiro wanted to talk about relations between the CPSU and other communist parties of the world with Comrade Nikita: about the conflict between the CPSU and the Chinese Communist Party, which split the world communist movement; about not quite partnership relations between the USSR and the countries of the socialist camp.And most importantly, the Secretary General of the ICP was going to discuss with Khrushchev the ideological issues that poisoned the life of the Italian Communists. For example, to talk about why the cult of the personality of Stalin was exposed by the CPSU rather half-heartedly, inconsistently. After all, because the reasons for the emergence of the Stalinist cult were not named, at least formally, the blame for its creation fell on the old Stalinist hardening communist Palmiro Tolyatti.
But no matter how much the receiving party said that Khrushchev was not in Moscow, Tolyatti understood that there would be no reception. For a man who was one of the leaders of the Communist International, when Khrushchev was still barely on the district committee level, it was a double insult. And Tolyatti rushed to the former Comintern political advisor Boris Ponomarev, who led the international department of the CPSU Central Committee. The old comrade advised Tolyatti to go on holiday to the Crimea, where, perhaps, the meeting with Khrushchev would take place.
In Crimea, Togliatti was not up to rest. Still hoping to get an audience with Khrushchev, he began to write a memorandum for this meeting, in which he tried to harmoniously set out his system of arguments.However, the owners did not leave the guest alone - a person who lived in the USSR for many years tried to show the sights of the all-union health resort again.
Among other things, he was offered a visit to the Artek pioneer camp, where children from Italy rested that summer. The trip was scheduled for August 13th. In the morning, Togliatti complained of fatigue, but eventually agreed to go - most likely because there he had the opportunity to speak publicly and bring his point of view to the Soviet leadership. He was brought to the sea camp "Artek", where the full program of receiving a dear guest was organized: a ruler on a campfire site with admission to honorary pioneers and a concert of children's initiative. Vladimir Svistov, who was then working as a marine camp methodologist, told me that Togliatti was very worried. But he believed that the distinguished guest was touched by the greeting of Soviet and Italian children.
The answer word Tolyatti intended primarily Khrushchev. The Italian Secretary General extended the palm branch of the world to his Soviet colleague: “We have a different language, but our heart is one. And in your heart, and in my heart, the same thoughts, the same ideals ...Both you and we are fighting for the happiness of nations, for brotherhood among nations, for progress, for socialism. That unity is the guarantee of our victory. "
It was very hot, but Togliatti remained buttoned up and did not even relax the tie knot. It is possible that in this way (in addition, a photographer has finally appeared) tried to show that his visit to the USSR is nonetheless official. But this is only an assumption.
As Artek photographer Vasily Nikolaev told, after shooting on the campfire site, he continued to shoot Togliatti during the concert. “His hands suddenly fell on their knees,” Nikolayev recalled. “I took off. This is his penultimate picture. And then he suddenly began to throw back his head and grabbed his tie with his hand. I took off again. Then he began to fall, he ran, and I realized that he was sick. It was inconvenient to shoot further, it was indecent to somehow ... "Vladimir Svistov was sitting on the podium above Tolyatti and saw the General Secretary begin to roll on his side. Immediately they called the doctor who was sitting right there, called the Artek car for medical aid, and on a stretcher they carefully transferred Tolyatti to the medical unit of the sea camp. The diagnosis was obvious - stroke.
The high authorities immediately arrived at the camp, including “from where it is necessary”. Strict instructions were given to Vasily Nikolayev. The photographs, besides the most recent ones, were ordered to be printed for transfer to the memory of the Italian comrades. “And they forbade telling about what he saw further,” Vasily Yakovlevich told me. I have left only one print of the latest images. "
For a long time he refused to give them for publication: "If they said it was impossible, it means that it is impossible." No words about the fact that almost 40 years have passed and that the states whose representatives ordered him to forget about this story have not existed for ten years have not worked. The elder was adamant. To persuade the veteran of the photo, I had to connect his granddaughter. The old man could not stand such pressure and gave up: "It is all the same to die soon. Publish."
The leaders of the CPSU and the IKP flew to the bed of the patient in Togliatti. The latest political opponent of Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro, shocked by the incident, even gave his own personal plane.Luminaries of medicine came from Moscow. But, despite all their efforts, Togliatti did not regain consciousness.
In front of the Central Committee of the ICP in Rome, there was a continuous rally. And in “Artek” there was absolute silence: in order not to harm Comrade Palmiro, the pioneers decided not to make noise. However, the patient's condition worsened from day to day. On August 20, the situation became hopeless, but the Soviet doctors decided to still trepan the skull and remove blood clots. But a day later, Togliatti died.
And then finally Khrushchev appeared. Vigorously expressed condolences to the wife of the deceased, who was in charge of the daughter of the French Secretary General Maurice Thorez; I consulted with Ponomarev about how to continue talking with Italian party friends. But nevertheless he did not want to conduct negotiations with them seriously, and therefore began to hurry with sending the body of Tolyatti to Italy.
After the farewell, the coffin was loaded into a minibus, Khrushchev and his wife sat in the open “Seagull”, and the cavalcade, escorted by guards and the traffic police, went to the airport. But on the pass, the bus suddenly stalled. An awkward pause reappeared. In the end, Khrushchev ordered to transfer the coffin to his open car and cover it with something.He himself moved to another car, and the mourning procession with the coffin protruding from under the rags, continued on its way.
But the funeral misadventures did not end there. At the airport in Simferopol, another farewell procedure was prepared. The bursting guys from the guard raised a heavy coffin, but an agitated Khrushchev pushed one of them away and put his shoulder up. The first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, as we know, did not differ in grenadier growth, and the coffin left without a support began to fall on it, and Khrushchev, in turn, began to settle on the concrete. KGB officers had to re-conduct educational work with photographers and pioneers who stood in the guard of honor at the ramp.
And Khrushchev’s troubles were just beginning. Like any sudden death, the death of Togliatti caused a lot of idle talk. The Italian Communists, who lived within the framework of parliamentary democracy, decided to turn the tragedy to their advantage. They circulated a version that Togliatti died during heated discussions with the leadership of the CPSU, defending the special position of the IKP, and in confirmation published a memorandum of the deceased in talks with Khrushchev in his newspaper Unita.
Moscow had no choice but to publish the same text in Pravda. Actually, the majority of members of the Soviet leadership, who actively participated in the preparations for the removal of Khrushchev, were well on hand: the party and the people demonstrated the helplessness of “dear Nikita Sergeyevich” as the leader of the world communist movement, who did not want and did not get along with the Communists in the West. A little more than a month remained before its displacement.
In his native Italy, in Rome, only one street was named after P. Tolyatti.
Very often there is a statement that the city of Togliatti before its renaming was called Stavropol-on-Volga. However, this opinion is wrong. In 1777, another city was founded in the North Caucasus, then bearing the name Stavropol-Kavkazsky. By analogy, the clarifying definition appeared in the Volga Stavropol, however, this name was never official.